SPEAKING IN TONGUE HAPPENED

DURING THE FESTIVAL OF TABERNACLES,

AND NOT AT PENTECOSTă

                                             

Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader

 

 

The speaking in tongue happened during a festival when “Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven” (Acts 2:5) were gathered together in Jerusalem.  They were there on pilgrimage.  This could have happened in any of the three pilgrim festivals:  the Feast of Unleavened Bread or Passover Festival (Pesach), the Feast of Weeks or Harvest or Pentecost (Shavuot), or the Feast of Tabernacles or Shelters or Booths or In-gathering (Sukkoth).  The Bible states that it was at Pentecost when it happened (Acts 2:1).  But was it really at Pentecost when it happened or at another festival?  This webpage will show that it was not during Pentecost when it happened but at the Festival of Tabernacles.  This was uncovered after proving that the crucifixion date of Jesus on August 17, 1 BC revealed by the Holy Spirit is correct.  The webpage “Crucifixion Date of Jesus Revealed and Proven” at http://aristean.org/jesuscrucify1.htm explains how the revelation has been proven to be correct.

 

Please note that all verses quoted herein are from the Holy Bible, King James Version.

 

THE PILGRIM FESTIVALS

God commanded the Israelites to appear before the Lord in the place He chose—Jerusalem—three times in a year, to wit:

Deuteronomy 16:16 – “Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lord empty:”

 

These three feasts—the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of Tabernacles—are called pilgrim festivals, and together, they celebrate deliverance from slavery, revelation from God, and settlement in the Promised Land after 40 years of wandering in the wilderness.  The comparison of the three pilgrim festivals are presented in Table 1.  These days, the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Feast of Weeks are connected by the counting of the omer for 49 days.  In ancient times, however, they were not connected at all.

 

Table 1.  Summary of the three pilgrim festivals.

Feast

Feast of Unleavened Bread or Passover Festival

Feast of Weeks or Harvest or Pentecost

Feast of Tabernacles or Shelters or Booths or Ingathering

Jewish Name of Feast

Pesach

Shavuot

Sukkoth

When Held

14th to 21st of first month of religious year

Part 1: Presentation of first sheaf of corn on day after Sabbath

Part 2: Seven full weeks from Part 1

15th to 22nd day of 7th month

Jewish Calendar Date

Present: Nisan 14-21

Before: 14th to 21st of first month of religious year

Part 1: Day after Sabbath during Passover Festival (present)

Part 2: Seven full weeks from Part 1 now fixed on Sivan 4-5

Tishri 15-22

Gregorian Calendar Date

Present: Start between March 27 and April 25

Before: Any date

Part 1: Between March 27 and May 2

Part 2: Start between May 15 and June 13

Start between September 21 and October 19

Bible Verses

Num 28:16-25; Ex 12:14-20, 23:15, 34:18; Lev 23:5-8; Deut 16:1-8

Part 1: Lev 23:9-14

Part 2: Num 28:26-31; Lev 23:15-22

Others: Ex 23:16, 34:22; Deut 16:9-12 (Part 2)

Num 29:12-39; Ex 34:22; Lev 23:33-43; Deut 16:13-15

Duration

8 days

Part 1: 1 day

Part 2: 2 days (present)

8 days

 

Which of these pilgrim festivals is more likely the festival when the speaking in tongue could have happened?  We can eliminate the Feast of Unleavened Bread because it was in this feast when Jesus was arrested and it was around this time when He was crucified.  The speaking in tongue happened after His resurrection, after being with the apostles for 40 days, and after His ascension to Heaven.  We are therefore left with either of the two remaining pilgrim festivals: the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost and the Feast of Tabernacles. 

 

Table 2 illustrates the events that happened around the time when Jesus was crucified until His ascension to Heaven in both the Jewish calendars and the proleptic Gregorian calendar.  The months in the Jewish civil calendar shown are Av 3760 AM (a month of 30 days), Elul 3760 AM (last month of the civil year with 29 days), and Tishri 3761 AM (first month of the civil year with 30 days).  In the Jewish religious lunar calendar, the months were just numbered from 1 to 12, shown in the table as Roman numerals.  The first month of the religious calendar fell in the month of Av 3760 AM when Jesus was crucified.  It is during the first month of the religious year when the Passover Festival is held.  The Festival of Tabernacles, on the other hand, was fixed in the civil calendar from the 15th day to the 22nd day in the month of Tishri.

 

Table 2.  Dates in the Jewish civil and religious calendars from Av 1, 3760 AM to Tishri 30, 3761 AM and in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the year 1 BC.

Date in Jewish Calendars

Date in proleptic Gregorian Calendar

Day of

Week

Days

from

Cruci-fixion

Remarks

Civil

Religious

Av 1

I - 1

July 19

Wednesday

 

Start of religious year, New Moon Festival, a high day

Av 2

I - 2

July 20

Thursday

 

 

Av 3

I - 3

July 21

Friday

 

 

Av 4

I - 4

July 22

Saturday

 

Saturday Sabbath

Av 5

I - 5

July 23

Sunday

 

 

Av 6

I - 6

July 24

Monday

 

 

Av 7

I - 7

July 25

Tuesday

 

 

Av 8

I - 8

July 26

Wednesday

 

 

Av 9

I - 9

July 27

Thursday

 

 

Av 10

I - 10

July 28

Friday

 

 

Av 11

I - 11

July 29

Saturday

 

Saturday Sabbath

Av 12

I - 12

July 30

Sunday

 

 

Av 13

I - 13

July 31

Monday

 

 

Av 14

I - 14

August 1

Tuesday

 

Start of Passover Festival

Av 15

I - 15

August 2

Wednesday

 

Passover Festival, a high day

Av 16

I - 16

August 3

Thursday

 

Passover Festival

Av 17

I - 17

August 4

Friday

 

Passover Festival

Av 18

I - 18

August 5

Saturday

 

Passover Festival, Saturday Sabbath

Av 19

I - 19

August 6

Sunday

 

Passover Festival

Av 20

I - 20

August 7

Monday

 

Passover Festival

Av 21

I - 21

August 8

Tuesday

 

End of Passover Festival, a high day

Av 22

I - 22

August 9

Wednesday

 

 

Av 23

I - 23

August 10

Thursday

 

 

Av 24

I - 24

August 11

Friday

 

 

Av 25

I - 25

August 12

Saturday

 

Saturday Sabbath

Av 26

I - 26

August 13

Sunday

 

 

Av 27

I - 27

August 14

Monday

 

 

Av 28

I - 28

August 15

Tuesday

 

 

Av 29

I - 29

August 16

Wednesday

 

 

Av 30

I - 30

August 17

Thursday

 

Crucifixion of Jesus

Elul 1

II - 1

August 18

Friday

1

Jesus in the sepulcher; New Moon Festival, a high day

Elul 2

II - 2

August 19

Saturday

2

Jesus in the sepulcher; Saturday Sabbath,

Elul 3

II - 3

August 20

Sunday

3

Jesus in the sepulcher; resurrection of Jesus – before midnight of August 20

Elul 4

II - 4

August 21

Monday

4

Resurrection of Jesus before midnight of Elul 4; discovery of empty sepulcher at early daytime; 1st day from resurrection

Elul 5

II - 5

August 22

Tuesday

5

2nd day from resurrection

Elul 6

II - 6

August 23

Wednesday

6

3rd day from resurrection

Elul 7

II - 7

August 24

Thursday

7

4th day from resurrection

Elul 8

II - 8

August 25

Friday

8

5th day from resurrection

Elul 9

II - 9

August 26

Saturday

9

6th day from resurrection, Saturday Sabbath

Elul 10

II - 10

August 27

Sunday

10

7th day from resurrection

Elul 11

II - 11

August 28

Monday

11

8th day from resurrection

Elul 12

II - 12

August 29

Tuesday

12

9th day from resurrection

Elul 13

II - 13

August 30

Wednesday

13

10th day from resurrection

Elul 14

II - 14

August 31

Thursday

14

11th day from resurrection

Elul 15

II - 15

September 1

Friday

15

12th day from resurrection

Elul 16

II - 16

September 2

Saturday

16

13th day from resurrection, Saturday Sabbath

Elul 17

II - 17

September 3

Sunday

17

14th day from resurrection

Elul 18

II - 18

September 4

Monday

18

15th day from resurrection

Elul 19

II - 19

September 5

Tuesday

19

16th day from resurrection

Elul 20

II - 20

September 6

Wednesday

20

17th day from resurrection

Elul 21

II - 21

September 7

Thursday

21

18th day from resurrection

Elul 22

II - 22

September 8

Friday

22

19th day from resurrection

Elul 23

II - 23

September 9

Saturday

23

20th day from resurrection, Saturday Sabbath

Elul 24

II - 24

September 10

Sunday

24

21st day from resurrection

Elul 25

II - 25

September 11

Monday

25

22nd day from resurrection

Elul 26

II - 26

September 12

Tuesday

26

23rd day from resurrection

Elul 27

II - 27

September 13

Wednesday

27

24th day from resurrection

Elul 28

II - 28

September 14

Thursday

28

25th day from resurrection

Elul 29

II - 29

September 15

Friday

29

26th day from resurrection

Tishri 1

III - 1

September 16

Saturday

30

27th day from resurrection, New Year Festival, a high day, start of civil calendar, New Moon Festival, a high day, Saturday Sabbath

Tishri 2

III - 2

September 17

Sunday

31

28th day from resurrection

Tishri 3

III - 3

September 18

Monday

32

29th day from resurrection

Tishri 4

III - 4

September 19

Tuesday

33

30th day from resurrection

Tishri 5

III - 5

September 20

Wednesday

34

31st day from resurrection

Tishri 6

III - 6

September 21

Thursday

35

32nd day from resurrection

Tishri 7

III - 7

September 22

Friday

36

33rd day from resurrection

Tishri 8

III - 8

September 23

Saturday

37

34th day from resurrection, Saturday Sabbath

Tishri 9

III - 9

September 24

Sunday

38

35th day from resurrection

Tishri 10

III - 10

September 25

Monday

39

36th day from resurrection, Day of Atonement, a high day

Tishri 11

III - 11

September 26

Tuesday

40

37th day from resurrection

Tishri 12

III - 12

September 27

Wednesday

41

38th day from resurrection

Tishri 13

III - 13

September 28

Thursday

42

39th day from resurrection

Tishri 14

III - 14

September 29

Friday

43

40th day; Ascension of Jesus to Heaven,

Tishri 15

III - 15

September 30

Saturday

 

First day of Festival of Tabernacles, a high day, day of rest, speaking in tongue, Saturday Sabbath

Tishri 16

III - 16

October 1

Sunday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 17

III - 17

October 2

Monday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 18

III - 18

October 3

Tuesday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 19

III - 19

October 4

Wednesday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 20

III - 20

October 5

Thursday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 21

III - 21

October 6

Friday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 22

III - 22

October 7

Saturday

 

End of Festival of Tabernacles, a high day, Saturday Sabbath

Tishri 23

III - 23

October 8

Sunday

 

 

Tishri 24

III - 24

October 9

Monday

 

 

Tishri 25

III - 25

October 10

Tuesday

 

 

Tishri 26

III - 26

October 11

Wednesday

 

 

Tishri 27

III - 27

October 12

Thursday

 

 

Tishri 28

III - 28

October 13

Friday

 

 

Tishri 29

III - 29

October 14

Saturday

 

Saturday Sabbath

Tishri 30

III – 30

October 15

Sunday

 

 

 

Passover is the celebration of the Jewish people in Israel and the Diaspora (Dispersion) in a festival commemorating the divine deliverance or freeing of the children of Israel from their oppression and enslavement in Egypt after 430 years.  Since this festival is religious in nature and not season-dependent, it was retained in the religious calendar and not fixed in the civil calendar.  The religious lunar calendar is the calendar that the Jews had been using since they left Egypt whereas the civil lunisolar calendar is the calendar that they adopted from the Babylonians when they were exiled in Babylonia in sixth century BC.  These two calendars that the Jews used are discussed extensively in http://aristean.org/twocalendars.htm (under construction as of October 20, 2003). 

 

As shown in Table 1, the first month of the religious year fell in the month of Av in the year 3760.  The Passover Festival is celebrated from the 14th to the 21st of the first month of the religious year.  During the time when Jesus was crucified, the Passover Festival was held from August 1-8, 1 BC. 

 

Jesus ate the Passover Meal or seder with His disciples on the night of the 14th of the month.  This 14th day is called the Lord’s Passover (Leviticus 23:5).  Later that night, they went to the Garden of Gethsemane.  It was here where Jesus was arrested led by Judas Iscariot.  Jesus was not actually crucified during the Passover Festival because the Holy Spirit revealed that Jesus was crucified on August 17, 1 BC.  This is equivalent to Av 30, 3760.  This shows that the crucifixion happened nine days after the end of the Passover Festival.  This is discussed in details in http://aristean.org/passover1.htm.

 

Jesus was in the sepulcher for three complete days and three complete nights.  He then resurrected on Sunday, August 20, 1 BC, between 6 pm and midnight, or on the early evening of Elul 4, 3760.  Details about this is discussed in http://aristean.org/sundaysabbath.htm.  Jesus showed Himself alive and seen for forty days, and spoke of things pertaining to the kingdom of God (August 21 to September 29, 1 BC or Elul 4, 3760 to Tishri 14, 3761) (Acts 1:3).  Before Jesus ascended to Heaven, He commanded His disciples that they should not depart from Jerusalem but wait for the promise of the Father to be baptized with the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:4-5).  In Luke 24:49, Jesus said to His apostles, “And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.”  Jesus ascended to Heaven from Mount Olivet which is only a sabbath’s day journey from Jerusalem (Acts 1:12).  After His ascension, His disciples returned to Jerusalem.  The ascension happened on Friday, September 29, 1 BC or Tishri 14, 3761, the eve of the Festival of Tabernacles and the weekly Saturday Sabbath.  That evening, Tishri 15, 3761, was the first day of the festival and it was also the Saturday Sabbath. 

 

The following morning, the festival “was fully come” (Acts 2:1).  It was during this time while the believers were gathered together in one place when “suddenly, there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting” (Acts 2:2).  Cloven tongues like fire sat upon each of them.  “And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance” (Acts 2:3-4).  The apostles did not wait long to receive the promise of the Father that they will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.  It happened just overnight!

 

Attracted by the noise and in their excitement, people quickly gathered and formed a large crowd.  “And they were all amazed and marveled” to see that the believers who were Galileans speaking in the native languages of the pilgrims who were “Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers from Rome, Jews and proselytes, Cretes and Arabians” (Acts 2:9-11) .  Peter, standing up with the eleven, spoke to the crowd.  He preached to them about Jesus .  Then he invited his listeners to follow Jesus.  To be saved, he told them to repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus and that they would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.  A large number of them heeded the appeal of Peter--three thousand, the record states, were added to the group on that first day (Acts 2:40-42).

 

The Holy Spirit we communicate with told us that the apostles received this gift of speaking in tongue “to let the apostles feel the heat and flame of the fire of the Holy Spirit, and in their hearts, the love of God will burn.  And in that way, the apostles would have joy and enthusiasm, that they would perform their duties cleanly.”   Truly, the apostles were filled with joy and enthusiasm that they were bold enough to preach about Jesus.  The gift promised by Jesus from the Father happened just the next day after His ascension to Heaven.  The apostles did not have to wait long for the gift.  Otherwise, some could have been frustrated if the gift was given at a later time for they could have been waiting and waiting and the promise did not come.  They could have become irritable.  Others could have left for they had work or business to attend to or things had to be done at their homes.  They must have been surprised to receive the gift that soon and a special and an unexpected kind of gift that could have been new to them. 

 

The giving of the gift was also timely in that there were many pilgrims from different places, “out of every nation under heaven”, who attended the Festival of Tabernacles.  Some of these pilgrims could have been there since the Passover Festival during the first week of August and preferred to stay until the first week of October for the Festival of Tabernacles.  They could have come from far away places that it was more practical for them to remain in Jerusalem to attend both pilgrim festivals than come back and forth that soon.  During their two-month stay in Jerusalem, they must have also heard, if not witnessed, the crucifixion of Jesus on August 17, 1 BC.  So they were already aware about Jesus and had some knowledge about Him and His teachings.  Many of these people must have been among the 3,000 who joined the group that first day of the festival.

 

Another possible reason why many Jews from other nations opted to stay in Jerusalem from the Passover Festival to the Festival of Tabernacles might be because they were also able to attend the New Year’s Festival (Rosh Hashanah) on September 16, 1 BC (Tishri 1, 3761) and the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) on September 25, 1 BC (Tishri 10, 3761).

 

That year, the first and eighth (last) days of the Festival of Tabernacle coincided with the weekly Saturday Sabbath, so it was an extra special festival that could have attracted more pilgrims to come to Jerusalem.  The first and eighth (last) days of the festival are designated as sabbaths (Leviticus 23:35-36,39; Numbers 29:12,35), when holy convocations are held and work and business are proscribed or banned.  

 

Given the above circumstances and events, we can expect to find more pilgrims to come to Jerusalem to attend the eight-day joyful Festival of Tabernacles than the one- or two-day agricultural Harvest Festival or Feast of Weeks or Pentecost or Shavuot.

 

REASONS WHY PENTECOST IS STATED IN THE BIBLE

Jesus resurrected from the dead after being in the sepulcher for three days and three nights since His crucifixion.  This occurred on Sunday, August 20, 1 BC between 6 pm and midnight.  Sunday, i.e. from sunset of Saturday until sunset of Sunday, was observed as the Sabbath day of the followers of Jesus.  This was discovered in “Followers of Jesus observed Sunday Sabbath” in http://aristean.org/sundaysabbath.htm.  The followers of Jesus observed their seventh day of the week as their Sabbath day a day after the Jewish Sabbath.  If the Jews observe theirs on Saturday as it is known these days, the followers of Jesus observed theirs on Sunday.  And who could have instructed these followers to observe Sabbath day on Sunday except Jesus.  This tradition coupled by the fact that Jesus resurrected on Sunday evening was carried on.  Hence, weekly, on Sunday, in their meeting for worship, the early Christians were reminded of the day when Jesus rose from the dead or when He resurrected. 

 

Yearly, the followers of Jesus celebrate the anniversary of His resurrection in a great main feast called Easter, often referred to as the Christian Passover.  The crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus happened around the time of the Jewish Passover.  Hence, Easter was tied to the Jewish Passover. 

 

The Jewish Passover is the celebration of the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt.  This is celebrated on the first month of the Jewish religious year.  Since the religious year was using a purely lunar calendar, it had only 354 days in a year.  A solar year, on the other hand, has 365 days.  Passover, therefore, was wandering through the seasons in a solar calendar. 

 

The early Christians were using the solar Julian calendar.  They were the first to place the correct time when Exodus could have occurred.  Exodus occurred when the barley crop was shooting into ear (Abib).  They estimated that Exodus happened sometime at full moon after the vernal equinox on March 21.  Hence, in 325 AD at the Council of Nicea, the Christians decided to break away and to dissociate themselves from the Jews by not being dependent upon the Jewish Passover for the Christians’ Easter.  They made a formula of when Easter should be celebrated.  They decided that Easter should be observed “on the first Sunday after the full moon on or next after March 21 or one week later if the full moon falls on Sunday” (Webster’s Third New International Dictionary). 

 

Emperor Constantine wrote a letter addressed to those who were not present at the Council of Nicea.  He blamed the Jews for killing Jesus and how erroneous they were in celebrating Passover at the wrong time.  In fact, he even cited that the Jews at times celebrated Passover twice in one year, that is, in the solar Julian calendar with 365 days in a year.  This letter is found at http://www.fordham.edu/hasall/basis/nicea1.txt.

 

After placing Easter to be held in March or April, they had to consider when the ascension of Jesus to Heaven took place.  It had to be on one of the pilgrim festivals since there were many pilgrims when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles and they were able to speak in tongue.  The most logical festival is Pentecost held sometime in May, even though this is about fifty days from Easter or on the seventh Sunday after Easter.  The ascension of Jesus, however, happened 43 days from His crucifixion.  This, I believe, is how the Bible got in Acts 2:1 that the speaking in tongue happened at Pentecost.  Originally, I believe that the festival referred to was the Festival of Tabernacles in about September or early October.  Since this festival is about six months away from Easter placed sometime in late March or April, it would have been awkward to state that it was during this festival when the speaking in tongue happened.  Their most logical festival was Pentecost.

 

The Jews in the Diaspora took notice of what the Christians did to their Easter which was dependent before on the Jewish Passover.  Hence, from AD 328-342, those in Syrian Antioch always celebrated Passover in (Julian) March, the month of the spring equinox, ignoring whatever the rulings in Palestine were.  This was an open rebellion by Jews in the Diaspora to those who give the rulings in Palestine.  So, in order that the unity of Jewish people, both in Israel and in the Diaspora, would be preserved, the patriarch Hillel II revealed and published the secret astronomical observation of calendar making in AD 358/359.  He reformed the calendar such that he fixed the religious lunar calendar into the civil lunisolar calendar.  The civil year still started in the month of Tishri.  However, the religious year started in Nisan, a spring month.  This is when Passover is held, from Nisan 14 to Nisan 21.  This is also about the time when Exodus happened.  Those in the Diaspora did not have to depend on those in Jerusalem of when a month is to commence.  It was not visual observation of the crescent new moon anymore, rather it was using a precalculated calendar.  Since this reformation, the form of the Jewish calendar has remained the same until today. 

 

CONCLUSIONS

The following are the notable findings and from those of Table 2:

  1. That the crucifixion of Jesus occurred in mid-August confirming the August 17, 1 BC date revealed by the Holy Spirit;
  2. That the crucifixion occurred 2003 years ago this year 2003 and not 1970 years ago (2003 – 33 years the age of Jesus when He died);
  3. That the speaking in tongue occurred during the Festival of Tabernacles or Sukkoth and not at the Festival of Weeks or Pentecost or Shavuot, neatly agreeing with the Bible from crucifixion to ascension;
  4. That Jesus was not crucified during Passover, but after;
  5. That Passover was migrating through the seasons;
  6. That Passover when Jesus was crucified was celebrated during the month of Av sometime in July-August, 1 BC;
  7. That the Festival of Tabernacles or Shelters or Ingathering or Sukkoth was fixed in Tishri occurring sometime in September/October in the lunisolar civil calendar.

 

RECOMMENDATION

I recommend that the original manuscripts, such as the “Muratorian Canon” used in about AD 200, those used by Origen in AD 250 and by Eusebius in AD 300 should be consulted to determine in which festival the speaking in tongue stated in Acts 2:1 really happened.

 

File speaktongue.htm last updated: October 31, 2003

 

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