DAY AFTER CRUCIFIXION A HIGH DAYã

 

Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader

 

 

As proven in http://www.geocities.com/peacecrusader888/jesuscrucify.htm, Jesus was crucified and died on a Friday, the preparation day for the Jewish Sabbath the next day.  The summary of dates determined is as follows: 

 

Proleptic Gregorian date

Day of week

Jewish date

(Until sunset of Gregorian date)

Remarks

August 17, 1 BC

Friday

Av 30, 3760 AM

Crucifixion of Jesus

August 18, 1 BC

Saturday

Elul 1, 3760 AM

New moon; Jewish Sabbath and New Moon Festival

 

It is only in the gospel of John where it mentions that that Sabbath day after the crucifixion was a high day.  John 19:31 in the Holy Bible (King James Version) states:

“The Jews, therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was a high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” 

 

Other Bibles phrased that high day as follows: 

The Bible (Revised Standard Version) – “(for that Sabbath was a high day.)”

The New Testament – “(for that Sabbath day was an high day.)”

Good News Bible – “(since the coming Sabbath was especially holy.)”

The Bible (American Standard Version) – “(for the day of that sabbath was a high day)”

The Bible (New International Version) – “the next day was to be a special Sabbath”

Celebration – “(the next day was to be a special Sabbath.)”

Simple English Bible New Testament – “This Sabbath was a very important one.”

The New Testament by The Gideons International – “which was a specially important day”

New Testament in Contemporary English – “The next day would be both a Sabbath and the Passover.  It was a special day for the Jewish people …”

 

That Sabbath day was really a very important and an especially holy day for the Jewish people.  What did John mean when he called that Sabbath day a high day?  What made that Sabbath different from other Sabbaths?

 

SABBATH

The Jewish Sabbath (from Hebrew Shabbat, “to rest”) is observed throughout the year every seventh day of the week – Saturday -- in the Jewish calendar.  This calendar is a lunar calendar with 29 or 30 days in a month.  Sabbath may occur on any day of the month, including the first day and fixed-date holy days.  The first day of the month may be any day of the week, including Saturday.  Not every first day of the month is Saturday.  This is due to the fact that a seven-day week does not accord well with a lunar calendar.  If only the lunar month had 28 days, then Saturday would occur on the same days of the month every month.  However, it does not.

According to the Bible, after God created the world, He rested on the seventh day.  Sabbath is in commemoration of this original seventh day (Exodus 20:11).  God commanded the children of Israel to sanctify this day of rest and dedicate it to the Lord by abstaining from business and work, and engaging in worship and study at home and in the synagogue.

 

In the Ten Commandments, it is only the Jewish holy day of Sabbath that is commanded to be observed (Exodus 20:8-11; Deuteronomy 5:12-15).  In observing the Sabbath, the Lord commanded the Israelites to make offerings (Numbers 28:9-10) as presented in Table 1 below.

 

To get ready to keep the Sabbath (Saturday), the Jews make preparations on its eve (Friday, the sixth day of the week); hence the day is called Preparation Day.

OTHER HOLY DAYS

Aside from Sabbath, there are other holy days that God commanded the Israelites to observe and make offerings.  These are New Moon Festival (Rosh Hodesh); the pilgrim festivals of Passover (Pesach or Pesah), Harvest or Feast of Weeks or Pentecost (Shavuot), and Tabernacles or Shelter (Sukkot); and the High Holidays of New Year Festival (Rosh Hashanah) and Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). The last five are the major Jewish holy days.  In ancient times, the New Moon Festival was a major festival but is now considered a minor festival, and a lesser holiday—i.e. a holiday in which the observance is few and not always defined (Encyc. Brit. 22:447).

 

All the dates when to observe these holy days are fixed except Sabbath.  These fixed-date holy days may therefore fall on a Saturday except the Harvest Festival.  If any of these do fall on a Saturday, then it would be a double celebration making the day a high day. 

 

New Year Festival (on Tishri 1 and 2) and Day of Atonement (on Tishri 10) are now called High Holidays or High Holy Days.  The Bible does not link these two major festivals but the Talmud does.  Including the days between these festivals, the 10-day period is sometimes called yamin nora’im but is more accurately called Aseret Yeme Teshuva (“Ten Days of Penitence” or “days of awe”.)   Although these major festivals are called High Holy Days, they are not the same as what Apostle John meant when he called the next day after the crucifixion of Jesus a high day. 

 

OFFERINGS

The Lord spoke to Moses to tell the Israelites to present to God the required food-offerings that are sweet-smelling and pleasing to Him.  The Lord instructed them to make offerings daily, on Sabbath, on the first day of the month, during the pilgrim festivals of Passover, Harvest, and Tabernacles, on New Year’s Day, and on Day of Atonement.  The offerings consist of burnt-offering, grain-offering and wine-offering, and at times, sin-offering as tabulated in Table 1.  The burnt-offering serves as the food-offering (Numbers 28:19).  The offerings on the holy days are in addition to the regular daily offerings.  Details of the laws about the offerings are found in Chapters 1-7 of Leviticus.


 

Table 1.  The offerings God commanded the Israelites to make on their holy days (Source: Good News Bible).

Religious Holy Days

Daily

Sabbath

When Held

Every day

Every Saturday

Jewish Calendar Date

Every date

Every Saturday

Gregorian Calendar Date

Every Date

From sunset of Friday to sunset of Saturday

When Offerings are Presented

Every day, one in the morning and one in the evening

Every Saturday

Main Verses

Num 28:3-8

Num 28:9-10

Other Related Verses

 

Ex 20:8-10, 23:12, 31:12-17, 34:21, 35:2-3; Lev 23:3; Deut 5:12-15

Burnt-Offering (all animals must be without defects)

2 one-year-old male lambs

2 one-year-old male lambs

Grain-Offering (flour mixed with olive-oil)

1 kg with each lamb; one liter of olive-oil

2 kg

Wine-Offering

1 liter with each lamb

Unspecified quantity, assumed to be 1 liter with each lamb

Sin-Offering (animal must be without defects)

None

None

Work Restriction

None

Yes (Lev 23:3; Ex 20:10-11, 23:12, 31:15, 34:21, 35:2; Deut 5:14

Holy Convocation

None

Yes (Lev 23:3)

Trumpets to be Blown

None

 

Special Instructions

The first lamb is offered in the morning and the second in the evening

Burnt-offering to be offered in addition to the daily offering with its wine-offering (Num 28:10)

 

The offerings every Sabbath are in addition to the daily offering.  On Sabbath, therefore, the total burnt-offering consists of four one-year-old male lambs without defects, i.e. 2+2.  And if Sabbath falls on the first of the month, as was the case on the day after the crucifixion and death of Jesus, the offering consists of the daily, Sabbath, and New Moon Festival offerings.  There was much preparation to do for such an especially holy day: eleven one-year-old male lambs (2+2+7), two young bulls, and one ram to be killed for the burnt-offering; 19 kg of flour (2+2+6+2+7) to be mixed with about 9.5 liters of olive oil (1+1+3+1+3.5) for the grain-offering; 16.5 liters of wine (2+2+4+1.5+7) for the wine-offering; and a male goat to be killed for the sin-offering.


 

Religious Holy Days

New Moon Festival

(Rosh Hodesh)

Passover Festival

(Pesach)

When Held

1st day of lunar month

14th to 21st of first month of religious lunar year

Jewish Calendar Date

1st day of lunar month

Present:  Nisan 14-21

Before:  14th to 21st of first month of religious lunar year

Gregorian Calendar Date

May fall on any date (see Table 2 below)

Present:  Start between March 27 and April 25

Before:  Any date

When Offerings are Presented

1st day of lunar month

Each day for seven days

Main Verses

Num 28:11-15

Num 28:16-25

Other Related Verses

Num 10:10, 29:6

Ex 12:14-20, 23:15, 34:18; Lev 23:5-8; Deut 16:1-8

Burnt-Offering (all animals must be without defects)

2 young bulls, 1 ram, 7 one-year-old male lambs

2 young bulls, 1 ram, 7 one-year male lambs

Grain-Offering (flour mixed with olive-oil)

3 kg with each bull, 2 kg with the ram, 1 kg with each lamb

3 kg with each bull, 2 kg with the ram, 1 kg with each lamb

Wine-Offering

2 liters with each bull, 1.5 liters with the ram, 1 liter with each lamb

None

Sin-Offering (animal must be without defects)

1 male goat

1 male goat

Work Restriction

Yes, implied (Amos 8:5, KJV)

Yes, on 1st and 7th days (Num 28:18, 25; Ex 12:16; Lev 23:7-8; Deut 16:8)

Holy Convocation

 

Yes, on 1st and 7th day (Ex 12:16; Lev 23:7-8; Num 28:18,25; Deut 16:8)

Trumpets to be Blown

Yes (Num 10:10)

 

Special Instructions

Above offerings in addition to the daily burnt-offering with its wine-offering (Num 28:15)

For 7 days, the above offerings are in addition to the regular daily morning burnt-offering and wine-offering (Num 28:24); only bread prepared without yeast is eaten (Ex 12:15, 23:15; Lev 23:6; Num 28:17; Deut 16:3,8).


 



Religious Holy Days

Harvest Festival or Pentecost (Shavuot)

New Year Festival

(Rosh Hashanah)

When Held

Part 1: Presentation of first sheaf of corn on day after Sabbath

Part 2: Seven full weeks from Part 1

First day of 7th month

Jewish Calendar Date

Part 1:  Day after Sabbath during Passover Festival (present)

Part 2:  Seven full weeks from Part 1 now fixed on Sivan 4-5

Tishri 1

Gregorian Calendar Date

Part 1: Between March 27 and May 2

Part 2: Start between May 15 and June 13

Between September 6 and October 4

When Offerings are Presented

Day after Sabbath

First day of 7th month

Main Verses

Part 1: Lev 23:9-14

Part 2: Num 28:26-31; Lev 23:15-22

Num 29:1-6

Other Related Verses

Ex 23:16, 34:22; Deut 16:9-12 (Part 2)

Lev 23:23-24

Burnt-Offering (all animals must be without defects)

Part 1: 1 one-year-old male lamb

Part 2: 2 young bulls, 1 ram, 7 one-year-old lambs (Num 28:27); or 7 one-year-old lambs, 1 young bull, 2 rams (Lev 23:18, KJV)

1 young bull, 1 ram, 7 one-year-old male lambs

Grain-Offering (flour mixed with olive-oil)

Part 1: 2 kg

Part 2: 3 kg with each bull, 2 kg with the ram, 1 kg with each lamb

3 kg with the bull, 2 kg with the ram, 1 kg with each lamb

Wine-Offering

Part 1: 1 liter

Part 2: Unspecified quantity, assumed to be 2 liters with each bull, 1.5 liters with the ram, 1 liter with each lamb (Num 28:31; Lev 23:18)

None

Sin-Offering (animal must be without defects)

Part 2: 1 male goat

1 male goat

Work Restriction

Part 1: Yes (Num 28:26)

Part 2: Yes (Lev 23:21)

Yes (Num 29:1; Lev 23:23-24)

Holy Convocation

Part 1: Yes (Num 28:26)

Part 2: Yes (Lev 23:21)

Yes (Num 29:1; Lev 23:23)

Trumpets to be Blown

Yes, implied (Num 10:10)

Yes (Num 29:1; Lev 23:24)

Special Instructions

Part 1: New corn, whether raw, roasted, or baked into bread, not to be eaten until offering is done (Lev 23:14)

Part 2: 2 one-year-old male lambs as a fellowship-offering (Lev 23:19); each family to bring two loaves of bread presented to the Lord as a special gift (Lev 23:17); corn at edges of the field left uncut for poor people and foreigners (Lev 23:22). Above offerings in addition to the daily burnt-offering and grain-offering (Num 28:31)

Above offerings in addition to regular burnt-offering for New Moon Festival with its grain-offering, and the daily burnt-offering with its grain-offering and wine-offering (Num 29:6)

 

 

Religious Holy Days

Day of Atonement

(Yom Kippur)

Festival of Tabernacles or Shelters (Sukkot)

When Held

10th day of 7th month

15th to 22nd day of 7th month

Jewish Calendar Date

Tishri 10

Tishri 15-22

Gregorian Calendar Date

Between September 16 and October 14

Start between September 21 and October 19

When Offerings are Presented

10th day of 7th month

Each day for seven days + on 8th day (Leviticus 23:36)

Main Verses

Num 29:7-11

Num 29:12-39

Other Related Verses

Lev 23:26-32, 16:29-34

Ex 34:22; Lev 23:33-43; Deut 16:13-15

Burnt-Offering (all animals must be without defects)

1 young bull, 1 ram, 7 one-year-old male lambs

Each day from 1st to 7th day: 2 rams and 14 one-year-old male lambs + 13 young bulls on 1st day, 12 on 2nd, 11 on 3rd, 10 on 4th, 9 on 5th, 8 on 6th, 7 on 7th; on 8th day: 1 young bull, 1 ram, 7 one-year-old male lambs

Grain-Offering (flour mixed with olive-oil)

3 kg with the bull, 2 kg with the ram, 1 kg with each lamb

3 kg with each bull, 2 kg with each ram, 1 kg with each lamb

Wine-Offering

None

Unspecified (Num 29:15)

Sin-Offering (animal must be without defects)

1 male goat

1 male goat on 1st day (Num 29:16)

Work Restriction

Yes (Lev 16:29,31, 23:28,30,32; Num 29:7)

Yes, on 1st and 8th day (Lev 23:35-36,39; Num 29:12,35)

Holy Convocation

Yes (Num 29:7; Lev 16:29,31, 23:27,32)

Yes, on 1st and 8th day (Lev 23:35-36; Num 29:12,35)

Trumpets to be Blown

 

Yes (Num 10:10)

Special Instructions

No food eaten (fasting) (Num 29:7; Lev 23:32); the above offerings are in addition to the daily burnt-offering with its grain-offering and wine-offering (Num 29:11)

Live in shelters for seven days (Lev 23:42-43); above offerings in addition to the daily burnt-offering with its grain-offering and wine-offering (Num 29:16)

 

 

NEW MOON FESTIVAL

In the Jewish calendar in ancient times, the sighting of the new moon heralded the start of a Jewish month.  God instructed the Israelites to celebrate the first day of the month as a joyful occasion in what is referred to as the New Moon Festival or Rosh Hodesh  (Hebrew: Head of the Month).  They are to blow the trumpets when they presented their offerings (Numbers 10:10).  The offerings mentioned in the Torah (Numbers 28:11-15) are presented above in Table 1.  During Old Testament times, this festival was a major festival imposing abstention from business and work.  The Jews visited the Temple of Jerusalem for a special sacrifice and held a family celebration. 

 

These days, however, it has been demoted to a lesser holiday and is not celebrated or followed anymore as it used to be.  It is now considered a minor festival on which fasting and mourning are not allowed.  One reason may be due to fact that the Jews were dispersed throughout the world and have adopted the calendar of their host countries, which most likely is the solar Gregorian calendar.  This may also be the reason why the true meaning of high day is not fully understood anymore or has been lost.

 

The following verses from the Holy Bible (King James Version) explicitly mentions the New Moon Festival:

Numbers 10:10 – “Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God.”

Numbers 28:11-15 – And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the Lord; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot; And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram; And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savor, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord.  And their drink offerings shall be half a hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of a hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of a hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.  And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the Lord shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.

1 Samuel 20:5 – And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, tomorrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.

Note:  David lived around 1000 BC.  The tradition of celebrating the New Moon Festival with the family was followed during David’s time, more than 300 years from the Israelite’s emancipation from slavery in Egypt.  . 

Amos 8:5 – Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? And the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?

Note:  Amos preached to the people of the northern kingdom of Israel about the middle of the eighth century B.C.  That is about 500 years from Exodus.  The New Moon Festival, as can be discerned from this verse, was a major festival with business and work restriction like Sabbath.

Colossians 2:16 – Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:

Note:  Even during the time of the apostles, the New Moon Festival was still

being observed after more than 1,300 years from Exodus.

 

JEWISH CALENDAR

The Jewish calendar is a lunar calendar.  There are twelve months in a year with 29 or 30 days in a month.  The time it takes for the moon to complete one revolution around the earth is 29.5306 days.  A lunar year totals 354 days, which is about 11 days shorter than a solar year.  The solar year is the time it takes for the earth to complete one revolution around the sun, which is 365.2422 days.  The Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar.

 

In order to keep the festivals being celebrated in their proper season, a month of 30 days is intercalated in the Jewish calendar every 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years in a 19-year cycle.  When this intercalation occurs, the Jewish year is said to be a leap year.

 

These days, the same Jewish calendar is used as the religious calendar and the civil calendar as shown in Table 2.  The religious year starts in the month of Nisan while the civil year starts in the month of Tishri.  In ancient times, the start of the religious year may be anytime of the year because it was purely lunar.  It was unaffected by the intercalation of a month in the civil calendar.  The months were numbered 1 to 12.  This is explained more extensively in http://www.geocities.com/peacecrusader888/twocalendars.htm. 

 

Also these days, the Jews may shift by a day the beginning of the civil calendar (Tishri 1) in order to avoid the Sabbath coinciding with a particular annual festival or fast completely, thus avoiding potential conflict that could result in violating the day or infringing it.  For example, the Day of Atonement must not fall on a Friday or Sunday, or the seventh day of the Festival of Tabernacles must not be a sabbath.

 

Table 2 also shows the earliest date and latest date in the Gregorian calendar when the Jewish month can start.  Note that Av may start between July 9 and August 7.  When Jesus was crucified, the month of Av started on July 19, 1 BC.  The first month of the religious year fell on that month, which called for the celebration of the Passover Festival.  The festival was held from August 1 to August 8, 1 BC.  The crucifixion did not happen during the festival, but nine days after.  It was on August 17, 1 BC (Av 30, 3760 AM).  Please read the details in http://www.geocities.com/peacecrusader/passover.htm.

 

Table 2.  The earliest and latest dates in the Gregorian calendar when the months of the present Jewish religious and civil calendars begin.

Month

Number of Days

Religious Calendar

Civil Calendar

Earliest Start

Latest Start

Common Year

Leap Year

Common Year

Leap Year

Tishri

30

7

7

1

1

Sep 6

Oct 4

Heshvan

29 or 30

8

8

2

2

Oct 5

Nov 4

Kislev

29 or 30

9

9

3

3

Nov 5

Dec 3

Tevet

29

10

10

4

4

Dec 5

Jan 2

Shevat

30

11

11

5

5

Jan 3

Feb 2

Adar I (leap year only)

30

-

12

-

6

Feb 1

Feb 11

Adar (Adar II in leap year)

29

12

13

6

7

Feb 1

Mar 13

Nisan

30

1

1

7

8

Mar 13

Apr 11

Iyyar

29

2

2

8

9

Apr 12

May 11

Sivan

30

3

3

9

10

May 11

Jun 9

Tammuz

29

4

4

10

11

Jun 10

Jul 9

Av

30

5

5

11

12

Jul 9

Aug 7

Elul

29

6

6

12

13

Aug 8

Sep 6

 

Table 3 tabulates the dates when five Jewish religious holy days were celebrated or observed from 1989 to 1993.  Note the dates when the New Year Festival, for example, was celebrated: at the earliest on September 9 in 1991, and at the latest on September 30 in 1989.

 

Table 3.  Gregorian dates of five Jewish religious holy days from 1989 to 1993.

Year

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

Passover Festival

Apr 20-27

Apr 10-17

Mar 30 – Apr 6

Apr 18-25

Apr 6-13

Harvest Festival

Jun 9

May 30

May 19

Jun 7

May 16

New Year Festival

Sep 30

Sep 20

Sep 9

Sep 28

Sep 16

Day of Atonement

Oct 9

Sep 29

Sep 18

Oct 7

Sep 26

Festival of Tabernacles

Oct 14-21

Oct 4-11

Sep 23-30

Oct 12-19

Sep 30 – Oct 7

Source:  Dates and Meanings of Religious and Other Festivals by Dr. John Walshe

 

CRUCIFIXION TO ASCENSION TO HEAVEN OF JESUS

Jesus was in the tomb for three days and three nights as prophesied by Jesus, to wit:

Matthew 12:39-41 – But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign: and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonah: For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.  The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, a greater than Jonah is here.

 

Another verse mentions about the rising of Jesus from the dead after three days, to wit:

Mark 8:31 – And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.

 

Most other verses say it will be on the third day that Jesus will rise again, to wit:

Matthew 16:21 – From that time forth began Jesus to show unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.

Matthew 17:22-23 – And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again.  And they were exceeding sorry.

Matthew 20:19 – And shall  deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again.

Mark 9:31 – For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.

Mark 10:33-34 – Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles: And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall\all spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.

Luke 9:22 – Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.

Luke 18:31-33 – Then he took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished.  For he shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on: And they shall scourge him, and put him to death: and the third day he shall rise again.

 

The tomb was to be guarded for three days or up to the third day, as narrated as follows:

Matthew 27:62-66 - Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.  Command therefore that the sepulcher be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.  Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as ye can.  So they went, and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

 

Which is correct: Jesus will rise after three days or Jesus will rise on the third day?  Do they mean the same thing?  Was “three days” changed to “third day” when Easter was set to around March or April with reference to the vernal equinox in 325 AD?  Was the change made to show that the resurrection happened on the first day of the week (Sunday, based on Jewish calendar)?  The original manuscripts have to be examined. 

 

Joseph, a rich man from Arimathea, took the body of Jesus down from the cross, wrapped it in a linen sheet, and placed it in his own tomb, which had been dug out of solid rock and which had never been used.  Then he rolled a large stone across the entrance to the tomb and went away (Matthew 27:57-61, Mark 15:42-47, Luke 23:50-56, John 19:38-42).  The Holy Spirit told us that Jesus was really three days and three nights in the tomb.  This means that when He rose, it was during the night of Monday, before midnight, and the tomb was discovered empty on Tuesday morning.  The discovery of an empty tomb cannot happen on Sunday because that is only two nights and one day from crucifixion. 

 

After three days and three nights, Jesus rose and appeared to His disciples for the next 40 days (Acts 1:3) before finally ascending to Heaven.  The total number of days from crucifixion to ascension therefore is 43 days.  When He was crucified, it was a Friday.  When He ascended to Heaven, it was Saturday, a Sabbath day.  Acts 1:12 mentioned that the disciples’ journey from mount called Olivet (where Jesus ascended to Heaven) to Jerusalem was “a sabbath day’s journey”.  Why was the journey called “a sabbath’s day journey”?  Why was the journey not just called “a day’s journey”?  Because the journey really happened on a Sabbath.  If one had to journey during a Sabbath day, it had to be short only.  Mount Olivet was not that far away from Jerusalem. 

 

The ascension happened on Tishri 14, 3761 AM equivalent to September 29, 1 BC.  Since it was Sabbath, they, about a hundred and twenty, stayed together in a house (Acts 1:15) until the next day, Tishri 15, 3761 AM, the first day of the Festival of Tabernacles, which was another day of rest.  So there were two consecutive days of rest: the Sabbath and the first day of the Festival of Tabernacles (Tishri 14-15, 3760 AM or September 29-30, 1 BC).  This is why Jesus commanded His disciples “that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father” (Acts 1:4) and that they “shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon them” (Acts 1:8).  That power that was given them was the gift to speak in tongues, which they were able to demonstrate during the first day of the festival.

 

Acts 2:1 states that it was Pentecost (Harvest Festival or Feast of Weeks or Shavuot) when this happened.  However, it was discovered here that it was not during Pentecost but during the Festival of Tabernacles when they received the gift of tongue (Acts 2:2-4).  Acts 2:1 states “And when the day of Pentecost was fully come”.  This means that the first day of the festival has finally arrived; “fully” meaning the day part of the first day of the festival.  There were devout Jewish men from “every nation under heaven” (Acts 2:5).  They were Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in Mesopotamia and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, Cretes and Arabians (Acts 2:9-11).  Why were there many people from different lands in Jerusalem during the festival?  Because they were on a pilgrimage as commanded by God, to wit:

Deuteronomy 16:16 – Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lord empty:

 

It was about the third hour of the day, about 9 a.m., when they spoke to the pilgrims in their own languages.  The pilgrims were amazed.  Some mocked the followers of Jesus as being drunk and “full of new wine” (Acts 2:13).  Peter, standing up with the eleven, said, “These are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day” (Acts 2:15).  The Festival of Tabernacles is the festival where one may indulge in wine because it is a joyous occasion.  This cannot be during the Day of Atonement, which is a day of total fasting.

 

The Holy Spirit said to us that this joyful mystery wherein God the Holy Spirit descended on His apostles happened in order “to let the apostles feel the heat and flame of the fire of the Holy Spirit, and in their hearts, the love to God will kindle.  And in that way, the apostles would have joy and enthusiasm, that they would perform their duties cleanly.”  It was just timely that the gift of tongue was given to the apostles on the day after the ascension of Jesus to Heaven and on the first day of the Festival of Tabernacles when there were many pilgrim Jews present in Jerusalem.

 

Table 4 illustrates the events during the first three months of the Jewish religious calendar in the year 3760-3761 AM.  The Roman numeral represents the religious month number.  The day number of the month follows this.  So I – 30 means the 30th day of the first month of the Jewish religious calendar.

 

Table 4.  Dates in the Jewish civil and religious calendars in the year 3760 AM and in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the year 1 BC.

Date in Jewish Calendars

Date in proleptic Gregorian Calendar

Day of

Week

Days

From

Cruci-

fixion

Remarks

Civil

Religious

Av 1

I - 1

July 19

Thursday

 

Start of religious year, New Moon Festival

Av 2

I - 2

July 20

Friday

 

 

Av 3

I - 3

July 21

Saturday

 

Sabbath

Av 4

I - 4

July 22

Sunday

 

 

Av 5

I - 5

July 23

Monday

 

 

Av 6

I - 6

July 24

Tuesday

 

 

Av 7

I - 7

July 25

Wednesday

 

 

Av 8

I - 8

July 26

Thursday

 

 

Av 9

I - 9

July 27

Friday

 

 

Av 10

I - 10

July 28

Saturday

 

Sabbath

Av 11

I - 11

July 29

Sunday

 

 

Av 12

I - 12

July 30

Monday

 

 

Av 13

I - 13

July 31

Tuesday

 

 

Av 14

I - 14

August 1

Wednesday

 

Start of Passover Festival

Av 15

I - 15

August 2

Thursday

 

Passover Festival

Av 16

I - 16

August 3

Friday

 

Passover Festival

Av 17

I - 17

August 4

Saturday

 

Passover Festival, Sabbath

Av 18

I - 18

August 5

Sunday

 

Passover Festival

Av 19

I - 19

August 6

Monday

 

Passover Festival

Av 20

I - 20

August 7

Tuesday

 

Passover Festival

Av 21

I - 21

August 8

Wednesday

 

End of Passover Festival

Av 22

I - 22

August 9

Thursday

 

 

Av 23

I - 23

August 10

Friday

 

 

Av 24

I - 24

August 11

Saturday

 

Sabbath

Av 25

I - 25

August 12

Sunday

 

 

Av 26

I - 26

August 13

Monday

 

 

Av 27

I - 27

August 14

Tuesday

 

 

Av 28

I - 28

August 15

Wednesday

 

 

Av 29

I - 29

August 16

Thursday

 

 

Av 30

I - 30

August 17

Friday

 

Crucifixion of Jesus

Elul 1

II - 1

August 18

Saturday

1

Jesus in the tomb; Sabbath, New Moon Festival

Elul 2

II - 2

August 19

Sunday

2

Jesus in the tomb

Elul 3

II - 3

August 20

Monday

3

Jesus in the tomb; resurrection of Jesus – before midnight of August 20

Elul 4

II - 4

August 21

Tuesday

4

Resurrection of Jesus at nighttime of Elul 4; discovery of empty tomb at early daytime; 1st day from resurrection

Elul 5

II - 5

August 22

Wednesday

5

2nd day from resurrection

Elul 6

II - 6

August 23

Thursday

6

3rd day from resurrection

Elul 7

II - 7

August 24

Friday

7

4th day from resurrection

Elul 8

II - 8

August 25

Saturday

8

5th day from resurrection, Sabbath

Elul 9

II - 9

August 26

Sunday

9

6th day from resurrection

Elul 10

II - 10

August 27

Monday

10

7th day from resurrection

Elul 11

II - 11

August 28

Tuesday

11

8th day from resurrection

Elul 12

II - 12

August 29

Wednesday

12

9th day from resurrection

Elul 13

II - 13

August 30

Thursday

13

10th day from resurrection

Elul 14

II - 14

August 31

Friday

14

11th day from resurrection

Elul 15

II - 15

September 1

Saturday

15

12th day from resurrection, Sabbath

Elul 16

II - 16

September 2

Sunday

16

13th day from resurrection

Elul 17

II - 17

September 3

Monday

17

14th day from resurrection

Elul 18

II - 18

September 4

Tuesday

18

15th day from resurrection

Elul 19

II - 19

September 5

Wednesday

19

16th day from resurrection

Elul 20

II - 20

September 6

Thursday

20

17th day from resurrection

Elul 21

II - 21

September 7

Friday

21

18th day from resurrection

Elul 22

II - 22

September 8

Saturday

22

19th day from resurrection, Sabbath

Elul 23

II - 23

September 9

Sunday

23

20th day from resurrection

Elul 24

II - 24

September 10

Monday

24

21st day from resurrection

Elul 25

II - 25

September 11

Tuesday

25

22nd day from resurrection

Elul 26

II - 26

September 12

Wednesday

26

23rd day from resurrection

Elul 27

II - 27

September 13

Thursday

27

24th day from resurrection

Elul 28

II - 28

September 14

Friday

28

25th day from resurrection

Elul 29

II - 29

September 15

Saturday

29

26th day from resurrection, Sabbath

Tishri 1

III - 1

September 16

Sunday

30

27th day from resurrection, New Year Festival, New Moon Festival

Tishri 2

III - 2

September 17

Monday

31

28th day from resurrection

Tishri 3

III - 3

September 18

Tuesday

32

29th day from resurrection

Tishri 4

III - 4

September 19

Wednesday

33

30th day from resurrection

Tishri 5

III - 5

September 20

Thursday

34

31st day from resurrection

Tishri 6

III - 6

September 21

Friday

35

32nd day from resurrection

Tishri 7

III - 7

September 22

Saturday

36

33rd day from resurrection, Sabbath

Tishri 8

III - 8

September 23

Sunday

37

34th day from resurrection

Tishri 9

III - 9

September 24

Monday

38

35th day from resurrection

Tishri 10

III - 10

September 25

Tuesday

39

36th day from resurrection

Tishri 11

III - 11

September 26

Wednesday

40

37th day from resurrection

Tishri 12

III - 12

September 27

Thursday

41

38th day from resurrection

Tishri 13

III - 13

September 28

Friday

42

39th day from resurrection

Tishri 14

III - 14

September 29

Saturday

43

40th day; Ascension of Jesus to Heaven, Sabbath

Tishri 15

III - 15

September 30

Sunday

 

First day of Festival of Tabernacles, Day of rest, Speaking in tongues

Tishri 16

III - 16

October 1

Monday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 17

III - 17

October 2

Tuesday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 18

III - 18

October 3

Wednesday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 19

III - 19

October 4

Thursday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 20

III - 20

October 5

Friday

 

Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 21

III - 21

October 6

Saturday

 

Festival of Tabernacles, Sabbath

Tishri 22

III - 22

October 7

Sunday

 

End of Festival of Tabernacles

Tishri 23

III - 23

October 8

Monday

 

 

Tishri 24

III - 24

October 9

Tuesday

 

 

Tishri 25

III - 25

October 10

Wednesday

 

 

Tishri 26

III - 26

October 11

Thursday

 

 

Tishri 27

III - 27

October 12

Friday

 

 

Tishri 28

III - 28

October 13

Saturday

 

Sabbath

Tishri 29

III - 29

October 14

Sunday

 

 

 

 

THE JEWISH FESTIVALS AND THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS

In which Jewish festival did the crucifixion of Jesus most likely occur?  Was it really during the Passover Festival or was it during some other time?  Table 5 tabulates the Jewish festivals in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus using Jewish calendar dates.

 

Table 5.  Dates in the Jewish calendar when Jewish festivals are held in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus.

Festival

Crucifixion Date if Crucifixion Held the Day Before/During a Festival

Festival Date

Date(s) 43 days After Crucifixion

Was there a festival on or just after 43rd day?

Passover (Present Time)

Nisan 13-20

Nisan 14-21

Iyyar 26-Sivan 4

Yes, Harvest – Part 2, New Moon

Passover

(Ancient Times)

Tishri 13-20

Tishri 14-21

Heshvan 26-Kislev 3

Yes, New Moon

 

Heshvan 13-20

Heshvan 14-21

Kislev 27-Tevet 3

Yes, New Moon

 

Kislev 13-20

Kislev 14-21

Tevet 27-Shevat 3

Yes, New Moon

 

Tevet 13-20

Tevet 14-21

Shevat 27-Adar I 4 or Adar 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Shevat 13-20

Shevat 14-21

Adar I 26-Adar II 3 or Adar 26-Nisan 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Adar I 13-20 (leap year only)

Adar I 14-21 (leap year only)

Adar II 26-Nisan 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Adar 13-20 (Adar II 13-20 in leap year)

Adar 14-21 (Adar II 1 in leap year)

Nisan 27-Iyyar 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Nisan 13-20

Nisan 14-21

Iyyar 26-Sivan 4

Yes, New Moon and Harvest – Part 2

 

Iyyar 13-20

Iyyar 14-21

Sivan 27-Tammuz 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Sivan 13-20

Sivan 14-21

Tammuz 26-Av 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Tammuz 13-20

Tammuz 14-21

Av 27- Elul 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Av 13-20

Av 14-21

Elul 26-Tishri 4

Yes, New Moon

 

Elul 13-20

Elul 14-21

Tishri 27-Heshvan 4

Yes, New Moon

Harvest – Part 1

Nisan 20-21

Nisan 15-16

Tishri 14

Yes, Harvest – Part 2

Harvest – Part 2

Sivan 3-4

Sivan 4-5

Tammuz 16-17

No

New Year

Elul 29

Tishri 1

Heshvan 13

No

Day of Atonement

Tishri 9

Tishri 10

Heshvan 22

No

Tabernacles

Tishri 14-21

Tishri 15-22

Heshvan 28-Kislev 6

Yes, New Moon Festival

New Moon

Elul 29

Tishri 1

Heshvan 13

No

 

Tishri 30

Heshvan 1

Kislev 13 or 14

No

 

Heshvan 29 or 30

Kislev 1

Tevet 13 or 14

No

 

Kislev 29 or 30

Tevet 1

Shevat 14

No

 

Tevet 29

Shevat 1

Adar 13 or

Adar I 13

No

 

Shevat 30

Adar I 1 (leap year only)

Adar II 13

No

 

Adar I 30 or Shevat 30

Adar 1 (Adar II 1 in leap year)

Nisan 14

Yes, Passover

 

Adar 29 or

Adar II 29

Nisan 1

Iyyar 13

No

 

Nisan 30

Iyyar 1

Sivan 14

No

 

Iyyar 29

Sivan 1

Tammuz 13

No

 

Sivan 30

Tammuz 1

Av 14

No

 

Tammuz 29

Av 1

Elul 13

No

 

Av 30

Elul 1

Tishri 14

Yes, Tabernacles

 

Table 5 shows that on or just after the 43rd day from the crucifixion of Jesus, the pilgrim festivals of Harvest Part 2, Passover, and Tabernacles, and the New Moon Festival were to be held.  It can be expected that during a pilgrim festival, there would be many people from different parts of the world in Jerusalem.  That cannot be expected during a New Moon Festival.

  1. Passover Festival (Present Time) – The present dates when the festival is held is Nisan 14-21.  If Jesus was crucified a day before/during the festival, the crucifixion date could have happened any day from Nisan 13 to Nisan 20 and the 43rd day falling sometime Iyyar 26 and Sivan 4.  The Harvest Festival Part 2 is held on Sivan 4-5. 

This possibility that Jesus was crucified during the Passover Festival is negated by the fact that Part 1 of the Harvest Festival had to be presented on a day after the Sabbath.  Apostle John said that the day after the crucifixion was a Sabbath and a high day.  How could it be a high day if Part 1 of the Harvest Festival happened a day after the Sabbath?

The 43rd day from crucifixion may also fall on the New Moon Festival of the month of Sivan. This is discounted because it is not expected for pilgrims from every nation to come to Jerusalem to attend a New Moon Festival.

  1. Passover Festival (Ancient Times) - In ancient times and during the time of Jesus, the Passover Festival was not fixed on Nisan 14-21.  It was held from the 14th to the 21st day of the first month of the religious lunar calendar.  The calendar was just numbered from 1 to 12.  The first month may fall on any of the named months of the civil calendar.  That is why the Passover Festival was migrating through the seasons. 

Table 5 shows the Passover Festival being held at various months of the year.  If we assume that the crucifixion of Jesus happened sometime during the 14th-21st in each of the named months, then the 43rd day would fall sometime the end of the following month and early the month after next.  The festivals that happened during this period are the New Moon Festival and Part 2 of the Harvest Festival.  The New Moon Festival is discounted because it is not expected that people from different lands would be present in Jerusalem on a pilgrimage during this festival. 

The 43rd day from crucifixion would fall on Part 2 of the Harvest Festival when the month of Passover was celebrated during the month of Nisan (Nisan 14-21).  As mentioned earlier, this festival is discounted because Part 1 of the festival falls on the day after the Sabbath.  How could it be a high day if the festival day is not a Sabbath day?  

  1. Harvest Festival Part 1 – This is discounted as the possible festival when Jesus was crucified.  The same argument is put forward like the preceding Passover Festival.
  2. Festival of Tabernacles – The 43rd day from crucifixion falls between Heshvan 28 and Kislev 6 when a New Moon Festival is celebrated.  This is discounted because it is not expected that there would be many people from different lands who would be present in Jerusalem on a pilgrimage during the New Moon Festival.
  3. New Moon Festival on Adar 1 or Adar II 1 (leap year) – If Jesus was crucified the day before this festival, the 43rd day after crucifixion fell on Nisan 14.  This calculated date is the start of the Passover Festival and this is also the date when Jesus was arrested.  This possibility is discounted.  How could Jesus who was arrested during the Passover Festival ascend to Heaven during another Passover Festival just 43 days later?
  4. New Moon Festival on Elul 1 – The day before this festival is Av 30.  If Jesus was crucified on Av 30, and 43 days later, He ascended to Heaven, then the calculated day will be Tishri 14.  The start of the Festival of Tabernacles is Tishri 15.  This festival is a joyous occasion and many, many people from different parts of the world come to Jerusalem for a pilgrimage.  This must be the festival when the disciples of Jesus were given the gift of tongue that they spoke to the pilgrims in their own languages.  Hence, Jesus was crucified on Av 30, and the next day was Elul 1, the celebration of the New Moon Festival.  It can be concluded that Av 30 was Friday and Elul 1 was Saturday, Sabbath day.  The year according to the Holy Spirit when Jesus was crucified was 1 BC.  Elul 1, 3760 AM (August 18, 1 BC) agrees with the accurate-to-the-minute Moon Phase Calculator in http://www.stellafane.com that it was new moon.  And when it is new moon, it is the start of the Jewish month. 

 

There were 43 days from crucifixion to ascension to Heaven of Jesus.  On or just after the 43rd day was a pilgrim festival.  That pilgrim festival could be the Passover Festival, Harvest Festival, or Festival of Tabernacles.  That is why there were many devout Jews in Jerusalem when the speaking in tongues happened.  If we deduct 43 days from each of these pilgrim festivals, which festival would that be?  Could that Sabbath following the crucifixion of Jesus coincide with the:

In addition, on the 43rd day from crucifixion when Jesus ascended to Heaven, there were many devout Jews from every nation in Jerusalem then.  Why?  Because they were there on pilgrimage attending the joyous pilgrim festival of Tabernacles, which started on Tishri 15, 3761 AM, equivalent to September 30, 1 BC. 

 

Among the festivals therefore, only the New Moon Festival held on Elul 1, 3760 AM (August 18, 1 BC) satisfies the conditions of a Sabbath following the crucifixion of Jesus being a high day because:

    1. The first month of the religious lunar calendar occurred in the month of Av 3760 AM (in 1 BC);    
    2. The 14th-21st of that month of Av was when Passover was held;
    3. The crucifixion did not happen during the Passover Festival but after, on Av 30, nine days after the end of the festival;
    4. Av 30 was the last day of the month.  The next day was Elul 1, the celebration of the New Moon Festival.
    5. Elul 1, 3760 AM, equivalent to August 18, 1 BC, was truly a new moon, the start of the Jewish month.
    6. There was a pilgrim festival that was to start the next day in Jerusalem 43 days after the crucifixion.  That pilgrim festival was the Festival of Tabernacles, which was attended by pilgrims from many parts of the world confirming the biblical account in Acts 2:5.

 

NOTABLE FINDINGS

One of the results of the revelation of the Holy Spirit regarding the crucifixion date of Jesus uncovered in this research is the true meaning of high day mentioned by Apostle John in John 19:31.  For the holy occasion of Sabbath to be considered a high day, it should fall on a major Jewish holy day which have fixed date (except Harvest Festival which is celebrated a day after Sabbath).  In this case, the Sabbath following the crucifixion fell on the first day of the month when the New Moon Festival was celebrated.  The date was Elul 1, 3760 AM equivalent to August 18, 1 BC.  It was a double celebration—the Sabbath and the New Moon Festival.  Two holy occasions being celebrated on the same day.  The New Moon Festival was a major holy day then but which has been demoted as a minor Jewish festival after the fall and destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 and the dispersion of the Jews throughout the Roman Empire. 

 

The notable findings of this research are:

Ø       High day means a Sabbath falling on the major Jewish holy day.

Ø       Jesus was crucified in August and not around March or April.

Ø       Jesus was crucified in the Jewish month of Av and not of Nisan.

Ø       Jesus was crucified after, not during, the Passover Festival.

Ø       Passover was migrating through the seasons during ancient times and the time of Jesus.

Ø       Jesus was crucified on 1 BC and not around 30 AD.

Ø       Ascension of Jesus to Heaven occurred on a Sabbath (Acts 1:12).

Ø       Speaking in tongues happened at the Festival of Tabernacles and not at Pentecost.

Ø       The present calendar should reckon the year from crucifixion and death of Jesus and not from His birth.

 

This research proves and confirms that the crucifixion date of Jesus of August 17, 1 BC (equivalent to Av 30, 3760 AM) revealed by the Holy Spirit Himself is correct.

 

Note:  Most, if not all, of the above verses were quoted from the Holy Bible, King James Version.

 

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