REVELATION AND PROOFS:
JESUS CHRIST WAS BORN ON MAY 23, 33 B.C.©

 

Aristeo Canlas Fernando, Peace Crusader

 

A spirit, a holy spirit, THE Holy Spirit, who I and several other people talk to, revealed that Jesus Christ was born on May 23.  I first heard this date in 1983.  No year; just the date May 23.  It is the same with the crucifixion and death of Jesus which He revealed as August 17.  No year; just the date August 17.  But from one of the His sermons which is called Panambitan or Pleading, I deduced that the year of His crucifixion was 1 BC.

When we connected to the Internet in 1999, I sought the help of Bible scholars and calendar experts in newsgroups and discussion forums to determine if there is any ring of truth in Jesus being crucified on August 17, 1 BC.  No one was able to help me.  I was even mocked and scoffed at such a ridiculous date.  Unable to get such help, I embarked on my own research to satisfy my own curiosity.  After four years, from 1999 to 2003, I found out that the Holy Spirit is correct in His revelation.  The results of that study with several notable findings are found at http://aristean.org/crucifyidx.htm.

With the crucifixion date verified, I then tried to find out if there is any ring of truth in the May 23 date.  Many agree that Jesus was not born on December 25 because the date just does not harmonize with the accounts in the Bible.  Please read about Christmas Day on December 25 in many Internet websites. 

Most place the birth at 1 BC, that is why our year, like today, 2006, is the number of years from His supposed birth.  Some say that He was born in 4 BC.  Others in 6 BC.  But usually, it is around that time.  This study found the year to be 33 BC.

Most scholars place the age of Jesus when He died at 33 years.  They arrived at this age by adding three Passovers mentioned in the Bible (John chapters 2, 6, and 13) during His ministry to age 30 when He started it (Luke 3:24).  However, if Jesus lived for 33 years, then, He could have been born on May 23, 34 B.C.  But then in my research since 1999, I found out that the Jews were using lunar years to express the passage of time.  The equivalent of 33 lunar years is 32 solar years.  Hence, Jesus must have been born on May 23, 33 B.C.

This study determines if Jesus was born on May 23 as the Holy Spirit revealed, and in the year 33 B.C.  Among the references used are the Bible, accounts of the respected Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, eclipse table prepared by Fred Espanek, Jewish calendars, Jewish festivals and fasts, calendar converter of Timothy James Forsythe, moon phases by Stellafane, Pasiong Mahal (Holy Passion), and the Aristean Cycle.

Quotations herein are from the Holy Bible, King James Version, and from the Works of Flavius Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews and The Wars of the Jews (or The History of the Destruction of Jerusalem) as translated by William Whiston found on the Internet at  http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/JOSEPHUS.HTM.  These quotations are included in this manuscript in order that the reader need not have to refer to the source but know exactly straight away what the source states.  These quotations are not included in the copyright of this manuscript.  The King James Version of the Holy Bible is used instead of any other versions because the Holy Spirit recommended this version as it is nearer the truth.

Table 1 summarizes the events around the time of the birth of Jesus Christ in about a five-month window, from the day when an eclipse of the moon occurred to the Jewish Passover Festival held after King Herod’s death, and the return of the Holy Family from Egypt, including the revelations of the Holy Spirit of His birth date and the arrival of the three kings.  Most other dates were derived from known or given dates.


Table 1.  Summary of events around the time of the birth of Jesus Christ.


No.

Proleptic Gregorian date

Jewish lunisolar calendar date

Day of week

Event

Reference

1

March 30, 33 BC

Nisan 15, 3728

Sat

Eclipse of the moon; order of King Herod of the burning of Matthias and his companions alive for raising the sedition

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 4; Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Section 4

2

March 31, 33 BC

Nisan 16, 3728

Sun

Jewish fast

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 4

3

Sometime in April and/or May, 33 BC

Sometime in Nisan, Iyyar, and/or Sivan, 3728

 

King Herod sought cure for his ailments

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 5; Wars, Book 1, Chapter 33, Section 5

4

May 18, 33 BC

Sivan 5, 3728

Sat

Jewish Sabbath

Acts 1:12

5

May 19, 33 BC

Sivan 6, 3728

Sun

Departure of Joseph and Mary from the city of Nazareth for Bethlehem

Luke 2:1-5

6

May 22, 33 BC

Sivan 9, 3728

Wed

Arrival of Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem

 

7

May 23, 33 BC

Sivan 10, 3728

Thu

Birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem

Luke 2:6-20; Matthew 1:23; Isaiah 7:14

8

May 30, 33 BC

Sivan 17, 3728

Thu

Circumcision of Jesus Christ

Luke 2:21; Leviticus 12:3

9

June 5, 33 BC

Sivan 23, 3728

Wed

Courtesy call of the three kings to King Herod

Matthew 2:1-8, Micah 5:2

10

June 6, 33 BC

Sivan 24, 3728

Thu

Arrival of the three kings to pay homage to the infant Christ in Bethlehem

Matthew 2:9-12; Psalm 72:10-11, 15

11

Sometime between June 6 and July 4, 33 BC

Sometime between Sivan 24 and Tammuz 22, 3728 

 

Travel of King Herod to the Jordan River to find cure for His ailment; wicked plan to slaughter the illustrious men in the Hippodrome

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 5; Wars, Book 1, Chapter 33, Sections 5-6

12

July 2, 33 BC

Tammuz 20, 3728

Tue

Last day of Mary’s 40 days of impurity

Leviticus 12:1-4

13

July 3, 33 BC

Tammuz 21, 3728

Wed

Purification rite of Mary and presentation of Jesus at the Temple in Jerusalem; return to Nazareth

Leviticus 12:6-8; Luke 2:22-39

14

July 4, 33 BC

Tammuz 22, 3728

Thu

Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt by night to escape the slaughter by Herod’s soldiers 

Matthew 2:13-15

15

July 4, 33 BC

Tammuz 22, 3728

Thu

Order of King Herod to arrest the three kings or bring over the Christ child

Pasiong Mahal, page 30

16

July 5, 33 BC

Tammuz 23, 3728

Fri

Slaughter of the innocents

Matthew 2:16-18; Jeremiah 31:15

17

July 9, 33 BC

Tammuz 27, 3728

Tue

Instruction of King Herod to Salome and Alexas to slaughter those in the Hippodrome; his attempted suicide; his order of the slaying of his son Antipater

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 7, Section 1; Chapter 8, Section 1; Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Sections 5-7

18

July 12, 33 BC

Av 1, 3728

Fri

First day of the first month in the Jewish religious lunar calendar; New Moon Festival

Numbers 10:10, 28:11-15, 29:6; Ezekiel 46:1,6-7; Psalm 81:3; Amos 8:5; Aristean Cycle

19

July 13, 33 BC

Av 2, 3728

Sat

Death of King Herod; dismissal of the illustrious men in the Hippodrome; succession of his son Archelaus as king

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter  8, Section 1-3; Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Sections 8-9

20

July 13-19, 33 BC

Av 2-8, 3728

Sat-Fri

Funeral, and mourning the death, of King Herod

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 8, No. 4; Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Section 9

21

July 25-August 1, 33 BC

Av 14-21, 3728

Thu-Thu

Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 9, No. 3; Wars, Book II, Chapter 1, No. 3; Exodus 12:14-20, 23:15, 34:18; Leviticus 23:5-8; Numbers 28:16-25

 

22

Sometime in 33 BC

Sometime in 3728-3729

 

Return of the Holy Family from Egypt

Matthew 2:19-23

 

1.       Eclipse of the moon; order of King Herod of the burning of Matthias and his companions alive for raising the sedition
Saturday, March 30, 33 BC ( Nisan 15, 3728)

            Josephus mentioned that an eclipse of the moon occurred on that very night when Herod ordered the burning of Matthias and his companions alive for raising the sedition.

Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 4: “Now it happened, that during the time of the high priesthood of this Matthias, there was another person made high priest for a single day, that very day which the Jews observed as a fast. The occasion was this: This Matthias the high priest, on the night before that day when the fast was to be celebrated, seemed, in a dream, to have conversation with his wife; and because he could not officiate himself on that account, Joseph, the son of Ellemus, his kinsman, assisted him in that sacred office. But Herod deprived this Matthias of the high priesthood, and burnt the other Matthias, who had raised the sedition, with his companions, alive. And that very night there was an eclipse of the moon.” 

            This lunar eclipse is of great significance in the determination of when King Herod and his son Antipater died, what that Jewish fast was, when the Passover Festival was held then, and consequently, the verification of the birth date of Jesus Christ that the Holy Spirit revealed. 
            A lunar eclipse occurs only during full moon.  There were two lunar eclipses in 33 BC, both partial, as follows: one on April 1 (Julian calendar date) at 21:13 Universal Time (U.T. - time in London, England used as reference time), Greatest Eclipse, and the other, on September 25 at 07:13 U.T. (Source from the Internet: Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA/GSFC, Lunar Eclipses, 100 BCE to 1 BCE).  April 1 is chosen because it occurred in the evening that made the eclipse visible in Jerusalem.  September 25 is not chosen because it occurred in the morning (Jerusalem time), hence, the eclipse was not visible there. 
            April 1, 33 BC, a Julian calendar date, is equal to March 30, 33 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, and 21:13 U.T. when greatest eclipse occurred is equal to 23:13 or 11:13 PM Jerusalem Time.  The equivalent of the date in the Jewish calendar is Nisan 15, 3728.  It is full moon during the fifteenth of a lunar month.

Note that this eclipse occurred during the month of Nisan.  At present, the Passover Festival is held in this month.  However, before the reformation of the Jewish calendar in 358/359 AD, the Passover Festival was held in whichever month in the Jewish civil lunisolar calendar the first month of the 12-lunar-month religious calendar falls.  See No. 18 below for further explanation.

There were also two lunar eclipses in 34 BC: one on April 13 (Julian) at 4:16 U.T. or 6:16 AM Jerusalem time, and one on October 7 (Julian) at 7:00 U.T. or 9:00 AM Jerusalem time.  Both of these eclipses occurred during the day in Jerusalem, hence, they could not have been observed there but were observed elsewhere in the world.  This is one reason why 34 BC is discounted as the year when Jesus was born.
            Note that Matthias and his companions were burned alive on a Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath day.  King Herod might have scheduled this punishment to be meted out on this day to have maximum exposure when Jews congregate for their Sabbath.  He seemed to be issuing a warning and a deterrent to anyone plotting any seditious acts.

  1. Jewish fast
    Sunday, March 31, 33 BC ( Nisan 16, 3728)

           
            Josephus mentioned that there was a Jewish fast the day after the eclipse of the moon as quoted in No. 1 above.  If King Herod burned Matthias and his companions alive on Nisan 15 when a lunar eclipse occurred, this Jewish fast must have been held on Nisan 16.
            Excluding the Day of Atonement on Tishri 10 as commanded in the Old Testament, the Jews presently have five fasts during the year, namely: Fast of the fourth month, Tammuz 17; the fifth month, Av 9; the seventh month, Tishri 3; the tenth month, Tevet 10; and Esther on Adar 13.  Zechariah 8:19 states only the first four fasts, which were all about the fall and destruction of Jerusalem brought down by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia and all happened in Judaea, to quote: “Thus saith the Lord of hosts; The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.” 
            The Fast of Esther was therefore a later addition.  The origin of this fast is traced in the story of Esther while the Jews were exiled in Babylonia.  Before the reformation of the Jewish calendar in 358/359 AD, the Fast of Esther was held on Nisan 16 (Esther 3:12, 4:16).  When the Passover Festival was fixed on Nisan 14-21, the Fast of Esther was moved to Adar 13 to be with the associated Feast of Lots or Purim.  Details about this fast is found at http://aristean.org/jewishfasts.htm.  

  1. King Herod sought cure for his ailments
    Sometime in April and/or May, 33 BC (sometime in Nisan, Iyyar and/or Sivan, 3728)

                After King Herod ordered the burning alive of Matthias and his companions, he sought cure for his ailments.  Josephus described his ailments and his desire to find cure:

    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 5: “But now Herod's distemper greatly increased upon him after a severe manner, and this by God's judgment upon him for his sins; for a fire glowed in him slowly, which did not so much appear to the touch outwardly, as it augmented his pains inwardly; for it brought upon him a vehement appetite to eating, which he could not avoid to supply with one sort of food or other. His entrails were also ex-ulcerated, and the chief violence of his pain lay on his colon; an aqueous and transparent liquor also had settled itself about his feet, and a like matter afflicted him at the bottom of his belly. Nay, further, his privy-member was putrefied, and produced worms; and when he sat upright, he had a difficulty of breathing, which was very loathsome, on account of the stench of his breath, and the quickness of its returns; he had also convulsions in all parts of his body, which increased his strength to an insufferable degree. It was said by those who pretended to divine, and who were endued with wisdom to foretell such things, that God inflicted this punishment on the king on account of his great impiety; yet was he still in hopes of recovering, though his afflictions seemed greater than any one could bear. He also sent for physicians, and did not refuse to follow what they prescribed for his assistance.”

  2. Jewish Sabbath
    Saturday, May 18, 33 BC (Sivan 5, 3728)

                This day was a Sabbath day.  Joseph and Mary would not have started their long journey to Bethlehem on such a day.  The law allows only a Sabbath day’s journey (Acts 1:12) and this is only for a few kilometers.

5.       Departure of Joseph and Mary from the city of Nazareth for Bethlehem
Sunday, May 19, 33 BC (Sivan 6, 3728)

            Joseph and Mary were residing in the city of Nazareth in Galilee but had to go to the city of Bethlehem in Judaea temporarily.  Even though Mary was due to give birth within the month, they were obliged to go to the family’s place of origin to register.  Joseph was from the house and lineage of King David who was from Bethlehem.
            Joseph and Mary must have started their long journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem after the Saturday Sabbath. 

Luke 2:1-5: “And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.  (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)  And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.  And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David;) to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.”

  1. Arrival of Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem
    Wednesday, May 22, 33 BC (Sivan 9, 3728)

                Bethlehem is about 110 km (69 miles) south of the city of Nazareth.  At this time of the year in Israel, the sun rises at 5:40 AM and sets at 7:32 PM, a total day length of 13 hours and 52 minutes.  Assuming that they started their journey at 5:45 AM when the sun rose and stopped at 6:45 PM, and had rest for two hours for meals and other necessities, they would have traveled for 11 hours per day.  Assuming that normally a person walks about 4 km per hour, he would have covered 40 km in a day.  But because Mary was pregnant, they were not able to travel at this rate.  Assuming that their rate was 2.5 km per hour, they would have traveled about 27.5 km in a day.  So it must have taken them four days to reach Bethlehem. 
                When they arrived there, Joseph asked his kindreds who were descendants of the royal line of kings (King David, in particular) or relatives if they could allow them to live with them for a while.  No kindreds or relatives received them and no one pitied them in their condition because they were poor.  They could not afford to stay in an inn.  God made Joseph and Mary poor and humble to be a model, an example, to all mankind. 
                In their quest to find accommodation, they reached the outskirts of the city.  They found a cave, a shelter for cattle and sheep and other animals, and they entered it.  And since the farm animals were out in the field to graze because of abundant grass, the cave was available and they stayed there for the night.
               

7.       Birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem
Thursday, May 23, 33 BC (Sivan 10, 3728)

            Jesus was born in the evening of May 23, 33 BC in Bethlehem after midnight.  The Holy Spirit revealed this date.  The first visitors of Jesus were the shepherds who were looking after their flock in the field that night.  An angel announced to them the birth of a Savior, who is Christ the Lord and who they could find in the city of David wrapped in swaddling cloths, lying in a manger (a manger is the eating or feeding trough in a stable).
           
Luke 2:6-20:  “And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.  And she brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.  And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.  And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.  And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.  For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.  And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.  And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.  And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.  And they came with hast, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.  And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.  And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.  But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her hear.  And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.”

            Because of the abundance of pasture, the shepherds were out in the field to move their flocks from one place to another.  They might be far away from home, so they just camped in the field in the evening with their flocks.  The evenings were not that cold since it was springtime and summer was approaching (May 23 is a spring day in Jerusalem.).  They watched and kept guard of their prized, pure-bred lambs, which were without blemish, to prevent wolves from attacking them and thieves from stealing them.  They supply these lambs to the temple in Jerusalem where they are sacrificed.  Bethlehem is not far away from Jerusalem. 
            Mary was still a virgin when she was betrothed to Joseph.  She was a virgin when she gave birth of Jesus as prophesied by Isaiah 700 years earlier. 

Isaiah 7:14: “Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign: Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” 
Matthew 1:23: “Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel, which being interpreted is God with us.

8.       Circumcision of Jesus Christ
Thursday, May 30, 33 BC (Sivan 17, 3728)

Luke 2:21: "And when eight days were completed for the circumcision of the Child, His name was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before He was conceived in the womb."
Leviticus 12:3:  “And on the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.”

            On His eighth day, He was circumcised and was named Jesus.  This must have happened in Bethlehem. 
            The start of an event, in this case, is the birth of Jesus, designated as day 1.  So as the law commands, the male child has to be circumcised on the eighth day.  This is equal to seven days after the male child is born.
            The Holy Spirit said that on the eighth day, a child should be baptized to take away the original sin.  Jesus did not have that original sin but He was baptized anyway to be an example.

  1. Courtesy call of the three kings to King Herod
    Wednesday, June 5, 33 BC (Sivan 23, 3728)

     Matthew 2:1-8: “Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.  When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.  And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.  And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judea: for thus it is written by the prophet, And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art not the least among the princes of Judah; for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.  Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.  And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child: and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.”

                The three kings dropped in the palace of King Herod to invite him to see and pay homage to the newly-born King of the Jews.  Herod called the Chief Priest and scribes and asked where the Messiah would be born.  They said “Bethlehem” as Micah prophesied. 

    Micah 5:2 : “But thou Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.” 

10.   Arrival of the three kings to pay homage to the infant Christ in Bethlehem
Thursday, June 6, 33 BC (Sivan 24, 3728)

            June 6 is the date the Holy Spirit revealed as to when the three kings arrived to pay homage to the Christ child.  It is the 15th day from the birth of Jesus or 14 days after He was born.  The Christian churches celebrate Three Kings on January 6.  The Roman Catholic Church calls it the Epiphany of the Lord whereas the Greek Orthodox Church calls it Epiphany Day.  January 6 is 12 days from His assumed birth on December 25.  The number of days is close enough though, 12 days against 14 days.

Matthew 2:9-11:  “When they had heard the king (Herod), they departed; and lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.  When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.  And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshiped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.”
              
            According to the Holy Spirit, they were kings whose names were Balthazar, Gaspar, and Melchor, and were from three different kingdoms in the East – Sheba, Arabia, and Persia.  They just met along the way to Jerusalem.
            The prophecies in Psalm are fulfilled:

Psalm 72:10-11,15:  “The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts.  Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him.  And he shall live, and to him shall be given of the gold of Sheba …”
 
            After a few days, the three kings departed into their own country via another way after God warned them in a dream that they should not return to King Herod. 

Matthew 2:12:  “And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.” 

  1. Travel of King Herod to the Jordan River to find cure for his ailments; wicked plan to slaughter the illustrious men in the Hippodrome
    Sometime between June 6 and July 4, 33 BC (Sometime between Sivan 24 and Tammuz 21, 3728)

    After King Herod met the three kings, he went to the Jordan River in his attempt to find cure for his ailments.  It was here where he bathed himself in the hot baths at Callirrhoe.  He had lost hopes of recovering so he paid his soldiers and their commanders and left some sums of money to his friends. 
                  From the Jordan River, he was to return to Jerusalem but since he was very ill, he did not proceed anymore.  He stopped at Jericho which is 57 km (36 mi) from Jerusalem, about at least a day’s travel.  Here, he took residence at the Royal Palace until his death a few weeks later.  At Jericho, he is nearer Herodium where he commanded to be buried.  He might have preferred to stay here to die instead of dying in Jerusalem.  He might not have been that popular especially among the predominantly Jewish populace of Jerusalem even though he was a practicing Jew (he was of Arab origin from both parents).
                It was in Jericho where King Herod hatched his wicked plan of gathering the illustrious men of the entire Jewish nation and shutting them in the Hippodrome to be slaughtered.  He ordered them to come to him under pain of death.  Because it was ordered by the king, they obliged and came.  They were assembled at the Hippodrome where he ordered them shut up inside.
               
    Josephus narrated this travel and the King Herod’s wicked plan.
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Section 5-6:  King Herod “went beyond the river Jordan, and bathed himself in the warm baths that were at Callirrhoe, which, besides their other general virtues, were also fit to drink; which water runs into the lake called Asphaltiris. And when the physicians once thought fit to have him bathed in a vessel full of oil, it was supposed that he was just dying; but upon the lamentable cries of his domestics, he revived; and having no longer the least hopes of recovering, he gave order that every soldier should be paid fifty drachmae; and he also gave a great deal to their commanders, and to his friends, and came again to Jericho where he grew so choleric, that it brought him to do all things like a madman and though he were near his death, he contrived the following wicked designs. He commanded that all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation, wheresoever they lived, should be called to him. Accordingly, they were a great number that came, because the whole nation was called, and all men heard of this call, and death was the penalty of such as should despise the epistles that were sent to call them. And now the king was in a wild rage against them all, the innocent as well as those that had afforded ground for accusations; and when they were come, he ordered them to be all shut up in the hippodrome.”
     
    Josephus repeated this account.
    Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Section 6:  “He then returned back and came to Jericho, in such a melancholy state of body as almost threatened him with present death, when he proceeded to attempt a horrid wickedness; for he got together the most illustrious men of the whole Jewish nation, out of every village, into a place called the Hippodrome, and there shut them in.”
     
  2. Last day of Mary’s 40 days of impurity
    Tuesday, July 2, 33 BC (Tammuz 20, 3728)

                In Leviticus 12:1-4, it states how long a woman who gives birth to a boy is unclean.  In the case of Mary, she was unclean for 40 days. 
               
    Leviticus 12:1-4: "Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 'Speak to the children of Israel, saying: 'If a woman has conceived, and borne a male child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of her customary impurity she shall be unclean.  And on the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.  She shall then continue in the blood of her purification thirty-three days.  She shall not touch any hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary until the days of her purification are fulfilled.’"

  3. Purification rite of Mary and presentation of Jesus at the Temple in Jerusalem; return to Nazareth
    Wednesday, July 3, 33 BC (Tammuz 21, 3728)

    The Holy Family traveled to Jerusalem, 10 km (6.25 miles) north of Bethlehem, for the purification rite of Mary and for the presentation of Jesus to the Lord at the Temple.  Mary, after completing the 40-day purification period, was able to enter the Temple.  They might have taken at least two and a half hours for this travel.  
               
    Leviticus 12:6-8:  "When the days of her purification are fulfilled, whether for a son or a daughter, she shall bring to the priest a lamb of the first year as a burnt offering, and a young pigeon or a turtledove as a sin offering, to the door of the tabernacle of meeting.  Then he shall offer it before the Lord, and make atonement for her.  And she shall be clean from the flow of her blood.  This is the law for her who has born a male or a female.  And if she is not able to bring a lamb, then she may bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons-one as a burnt offering and the other as a sin offering.  So the priest shall make atonement for her, and she will be clean."

                Since Joseph and Mary were poor, they could not afford to offer a lamb, so they just brought two young pigeons -- one for burnt offering and the other as a sin offering.

    Luke 2:22-24:  "Now when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, ‘Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord’), and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the law of the Lord, ‘a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.’"
     Exodus 13:1-2:  "Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 'Consecrate to Me all the firstborn, whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and beast; it is Mine.'"  This is repeated in Exodus 13:12: "that you shall set apart to the Lord all that open the womb, that is, every firstborn that comes from an animal which you have; the males shall be Lord's."

                Presently, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates this presentation of the Lord as Candlemas.  The Anglican Church called it the Presentation of Christ in the Temple while the Greek Church called it Hypapante (Meeting), referring to the meeting of the righteous and devout Simeon and Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:25-35).  These are held on February 2.
                After the rites at the Temple in Jerusalem, the Holy Family left to return to Nazareth. 

    Luke 2:39 :  “And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth.”

                The people in Jerusalem became troubled since that presentation of Jesus in the Temple.  They learned of the pronouncements of the shepherds from Bethlehem who visited Jesus when He was born.  They became more troubled when the three kings came to Jerusalem looking for the newly-born King of the Jews a month earlier. 
                Why did the Holy Family not return to Nazareth after Jesus was born and after registering for the census?  Was it because Nazareth is somewhat far to go back and forth to Jerusalem?   Jesus was the firstborn so He had to be presented to the Lord, and the presentation was at the temple in Jerusalem.

  4. Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt by night to escape the slaughter by Herod’s soldiers
    Thursday, July 4, 33 BC (Tammuz 22, 3728)

    On their first night of travel to Nazareth in the north, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream advising him to take his family and flee to Egypt.  This means that they headed back south going to Egypt. 

    Matthew 2:13-15:   “And when they (the three kings) were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.  When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt.  And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.”

                There was moonshine to guide them through the night in their travel since it was the last quarter of the month.  And the night was warm being summer.

  5. Order of King Herod to arrest the three kings or bring over the Christ child
    Thursday, July 4, 33 BC (Tammuz 22, 3728)

    King Herod learned of the trouble that was brewing in Jerusalem because of the birth of the new King of the Jews who he thought was his competitor for power.  After waiting for some time, Herod realized that the three kings tricked him by not reporting back to him after they found the young child.  He ordered his soldiers to go to Bethlehem and arrest the three kings who visited him in his palace in Jerusalem a few weeks earlier.  If they did not find the three kings, he wanted them to bring over the child.  His soldiers followed his orders but returned empty-handed.  The three kings were long gone.  The Holy Family had already left for Nazareth after the rites at the Temple.

  6. Slaughter of the innocents
    Friday, July 5, 33 BC (Tammuz 23, 3728)

    Failing to find the three kings or the child, he ordered his soldiers to slaughter the innocent children by decapitating them and draining the blood from their bodies, which almost muddied the streets of the city.  The Holy Spirit said that 15,000 children were killed excluding the fathers and mothers and brothers and sisters of these children (who might have resisted). 

    Matthew 2:16-18: “Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.  Then, was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, In Ramah was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning.  Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.”
    Jeremiah 31:15:  “Thus saith the Lord; A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping for her children refused to be comforted for her children, because they were not.” 

                Rachel, during their journey from Bethel to Ephrath (Bethlehem), died while giving birth to Benjamin as stated in Genesis 35:16-21. 
                Josephus, though, did not mention this slaughter of innocent children in his account of events in King Herod’s life.  The event might have been kept in secrecy to allay fears or to raise any suspicion of those shut in the Hippodrome.

  7. Instructions of King Herod to Salome and Alexas to slaughter those in the Hippodrome; his attempted suicide; his order of the slaying of his son Antipater
    Tuesday, July 9, 33 BC (Tammuz 27, 3728)
               
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Sections 5:  King Herod “sent for his sister Salome, and her husband Alexas, and spake thus to them: "I shall die in a little time, so great are my pains; which death ought to be cheerfully borne, and to be welcomed by all men; but what principally troubles me is this, that I shall die without being lamented, and without such mourning as men usually expect at a king's death. For that he was not unacquainted with the temper of the Jews, that his death would be a thing very desirable, and exceedingly acceptable to them, because during his lifetime they were ready to revolt from him, and to abuse the donations he had dedicated to God that it therefore was their business to resolve to afford him some alleviation of his great sorrows on this occasion; for that if they do not refuse him their consent in what he desires, he shall have a great mourning at his funeral, and such as never had any king before him; for then the whole nation would mourn from their very soul, which otherwise would be done in sport and mockery only. He desired therefore, that as soon as they see he hath given up the ghost, they shall place soldiers round the hippodrome, while they do not know that he is dead; and that they shall not declare his death to the multitude till this is done, but that they shall give orders to have those that are in custody shot with their darts; and that this slaughter of them all will cause that he shall not miss to rejoice on a double account; that as he is dying, they will make him secure that his will shall be executed in what he charges them to do; and that he shall have the honor of a memorable mourning at his funeral. So he deplored his condition, with tears in his eyes, and obtested them by the kindness due from them, as of his kindred, and by the faith they owed to God, and begged of them that they would not hinder him of this honorable mourning at his funeral. So they promised him not to transgress his commands.”
               
    Josephus gave the following comments:
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 6, Sections 6 :  “Now any one may easily discover the temper of this man's mind, which not only took pleasure in doing what he had done formerly against his relations, out of the love of life, but by those commands of his which savored of no humanity; since he took care, when he was departing out of this life, that the whole nation should be put into mourning, and indeed made desolate of their dearest kindred, when he gave order that one out of every family should be slain, although they had done nothing that was unjust, or that was against him, nor were they accused of any other crimes; while it is usual for those who have any regard to virtue to lay aside their hatred at such a time, even with respect to those they justly esteemed their enemies.”
               
                As King Herod was giving the commands to his sister Salome and her husband Alexas in slaughtering those in the Hippodrome, letters from his ambassadors to Rome came that said upon Caesar’s order, Acme was put to death, and with regards to Antipater, Caesar left the decision to Herod, his father and king, to either have him banished (exiled) or killed.
               
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 7, Section 1:   “As he was giving these commands to his relations (Salome and Alexas), there came letters from his ambassadors, who had been sent to Rome unto Caesar, which, when they were read, their purport was this: That Acme was slain by Caesar, out of his indignation at what hand, she had in Antipater's wicked practices; and that as to Antipater himself, Caesar left it to Herod to act as became a father and a king, and either to banish him, or to take away his life, which he pleased. When Herod heard this, he was some-what better, out of the pleasure he had from the contents of the letters, and was elevated at the death of Acme, and at the power that was given him over his son.”

    Herod the Great attempted suicide and failed, and ordered the killing of his son, Antipater.: 
    Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Section 6: 
     “Herod was overborne by his pains, and was disordered by want of food, and by a convulsive cough, and endeavored to die not a natural death but immediately by committing suicide.  He was to stab himself with a knife used to pare apples, but Achiabus, his first cousin, came running to him, and held his hand, and hindered him from so doing; on which occasion a very great lamentation was made in the palace, as if the king were expiring.  As soon as ever Antipater heard that, he took courage, and with joy in his looks, besought his keepers, for a sum of money, to loose him and let him go; but the principal keeper of the prison did not only obstruct him in that his intention, but ran and told the king what his design was; hereupon the king cried out louder than his distemper would well bear, and immediately sent some of his guards and slew Antipater; he also gave order to have him buried at Hyrcanium, and altered his testament again, and therein made Archelaus, his eldest son, and the brother of Antipas, his successor, and made Antipas tetrarch.”
    N.B. This account is also mentioned in Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 7, Section 1.

                King Herod had continuous fever and his sweat turned to maggots.  No one wanted to be near him.  This must have been the reason why he tried to commit suicide.

  8. First day of the first month in the Jewish religious lunar calendar; New Moon Festival
    Friday, July 12, 33 BC (Av 1, 3728)

    Table 2 shows the two kinds of calendar that the Jews were using around the time of the birth of Jesus: a lunisolar calendar for civil usage which starts in the month of Tishri, and a lunar calendar for religious purposes with twelve lunar months per year.  Wherever the first month of the lunar calendar falls in the lunisolar calendar, that would be its first month and the month when the Passover Festival would be celebrated.  In the former, a month is inserted on the third, sixth, eighth, eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth, and nineteenth years in a 19-year cycle to keep the months in line with the seasons, whereas no intercalation of any kind is done in the latter which is purely lunar with 354 or 355 days in a year.  This was how the Jews had two calendars before its reformation in 358-359 AD.

In 33 BC, the first month of the religious lunar calendar fell in the month of Av. 

Av is the eleventh month in the civil lunisolar calendar starting from the month of Tishri.  Av 1, 3728 was July 12, 33 BC.  The Passover Festival, a Jewish religious festival, was held from the 14th to the 21st day of the first month of the religious lunar calendar.  In 33 BC, it was held from July 25 to August 1. 

            In the Jewish calendar in ancient times, the sighting of the new moon heralded the start of a Jewish month.  God commanded the Israelites to celebrate the first day of the month as a joyful occasion in what is referred to as the New Moon Festival or Rosh Hodesh (Hebrew: Head of the Month).  The festival was a major festival imposing abstention from business and work.  The Jews visited the Temple of Jerusalem for a special sacrifice and held a family celebration.

The Aristean Cycle was used to determine when the first month of the religious lunar calendar fell in the civil lunisolar calendar in 33 BC.  The Aristean Cycle is found at http://aristean.org/aristeancycle.htm.

  1. Death of King Herod; dismissal of the illustrious men in the Hippodrome; succession of his son Archelaus as king
    Saturday, July 13, 33 BC (Av 2, 3728)

    Salome and Alexas, before announcing the death of King Herod publicly, dismissed the illustrious men of the Jewish nation who were shut up in the Hippodrome. 

    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 8, Section 2:   “But then Salome and Alexas, before the king's death was made known, dismissed those that were shut up in the hippodrome, and told them that the king ordered them to go away to their own lands, and take care of their own affairs, which was esteemed by the nation a great benefit. And now the king's death was made public, when Salome and Alexas gathered the soldiery together in the amphitheater at Jericho; and the first thing they did was, they read Herod's letter, written to the soldiery, thanking them for their fidelity and good-will to him, and exhorting them to afford his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed for their king, like fidelity and good-will.”

Josephus also noted the death of King Herod in Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 8, Section 1 and in Wars, Book I, Chapter 33, Section 8.  The first states “When he had done these things, he died, the fifth day after he had caused Antipater to be slain; having reigned, since he had procured Antigonus to be slain, thirty-four years; but since he had been declared king by the Romans, thirty-seven.”  The second states “Archelaus makes a funeral feast for the people, on account of Herod.” 
            King Herod was 70 years old when he died at the Royal Palace in Jericho.  The traditional date of his death is Shebat 2.  Presently, Shebat is the eleventh month of the religious lunar calendar falling sometime in January or February.  Shebat must have been chosen to agree with the account of Josephus that King Herod died before the Passover Festival and on the eleventh month.  Since the Passover Festival was placed in the month of Nisan, the eleventh month must be Shebat.            

It is true that King Herod died on the eleventh month of the religious lunar calendar and just before the Passover Festival.  During the time of Jesus, the religious calendar was not fixed to start in the month of Nisan.  It had twelve lunar months only and wherever its first month falls in the civil lunisolar calendar, that is when the Passover Festival was held and was the start of the year in the religious lunar calendar.

When King Herod died, the first month of the lunar religious calendar fell in the month of Av in the civil lunisolar calendar.  Av is the eleventh month of the civil lunisolar calendar which starts in the month of Tishri.  Av falls during the months of July and August.  So King Herod died sometime in July or August.  Using the second day of the month, he therefore died on Av 2, 3728 or July 13, 33 BC.  The Passover Festival was to be held on Av 14-21, 3728 or July 25-August 1, 33 BC, or 12 days after his death.  This death date now is logical since there were seven days of mourning plus the five days of build up of pilgrims to Jerusalem for the annual Passover Festival.

When the Jews reformed their calendar in 358/359 BC, they fixed the start of the religious calendar in the month of Nisan, sometime in March or April, when the Passover Festival is now held.  So with the fact that he died on the eleventh month and before the Passover Festival, his death was placed in the month of Shebat, the eleventh month of the religious calendar, and just before the Passover Festival.  It would be difficult to justify that he died in the month of Av which is at least eight months before the present Passover Festival so the Jews chose Shebat.

  1. Funeral, and mourning the death, of King Herod
    Saturday to Friday, July 13-19, 33 BC (Av 2-8, 3728)

    Josephus described the funeral procession of King Herod.
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 8, Section 3:   “After this was over, they prepared for his funeral, it being Archelaus's care that the procession to his father's sepulcher should be very sumptuous. Accordingly, he brought out all his ornaments to adorn the pomp of the funeral. The body was carried upon a golden bier, embroidered with very precious stones of great variety, and it was covered over with purple, as well as the body itself; he had a diadem upon his head, and above it a crown of gold: he also had a scepter in his right hand. About the bier were his sons and his numerous relations; next to these was the soldiery, distinguished according to their several countries and denominations; and they were put into the following order: First of all went his guards, then the band of Thracians, and after them the Germans; and next the band of Galatians, every one in their habiliments of war; and behind these marched the whole army in the same manner as they used to go out to war, and as they used to be put in array by their muster-masters and centurions; these were followed by five hundred of his domestics carrying spices. So they went eight furlongs to Herodium; for there by his own command he was to be buried. And thus did Herod end his life.”

                King Herod was buried at Herodium which was only eight furlongs (one mile) away from the Royal Palace.
                Josephus also mentioned the traditional mourning of seven days in Section 4, as follows: “Now Archelaus paid him so much respect, as to continue his mourning till the seventh day; for so many days are appointed for it by the law of our fathers.”  This means to say that the seven-day mourning was completed before the Passover Festival started.

  2. Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread
    Thursday to Thursday, July 25-August 1, 33 BC (Av 14-21, 3728) 

                The Aristean Cycle indicates that in 33 BC, the first month of the religious lunar year fell in the month of Av in the civil lunisolar calendar.  The month began on July 12, 33 BC.
                Passover is held on the 14th day of the first year of the religious lunar calendar and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, from the 15th day to the 21st day of the month.  Together, they are herein called the Passover Festival or Pesach as the Jews call it.  In 33 BC, the Festival was held from July 25 to August 1.  This Festival is an important annual event that Jewish men are required to attend and come to Jerusalem. 
               
    Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapter 9, Section 3:   “Now, upon the approach of that feast of unleavened bread, which the law of their fathers had appointed for the Jews at this time, which feast is called the Passover and is a memorial of their deliverance out of Egypt, when they offer sacrifices with great alacrity; and when they are required to slay more sacrifices in number than at any other festival; and when an innumerable multitude came thither out of the country, nay, from beyond its limits also, in order to worship God, the seditious lamented Judas and Matthias, those teachers of the laws, and kept together in the temple, and had plenty of food, because these seditious persons were not ashamed to beg it. And as Archelaus was afraid lest some terrible thing should spring up by means of these men's madness, he sent a regiment of armed men, and with them a captain of a thousand, to suppress the violent efforts of the seditious before the whole multitude should be infected with the like madness; and gave them this charge, that if they found any much more openly seditious than others, and more busy in tumultuous practices, they should bring them to him. But those that were seditious on account of those teachers of the law, irritated the people by the noise and clamors they used to encourage the people in their designs; so they made an assault upon the soldiers, and came up to them, and stoned the greatest part of them, although some of them ran away wounded, and their captain among them; and when they had thus done, they returned to the sacrifices which were already in their hands. Now Archelaus thought there was no way to preserve the entire government but by cutting off those who made this attempt upon it; so he sent out the whole army upon them, and sent the horsemen to prevent those that had their tents without the temple from assisting those that were within the temple, and to kill such as ran away from the footmen when they thought themselves out of danger; which horsemen slew three thousand men, while the rest went to the neighboring mountains. Then did Archelaus order proclamation to be made to them all, that they should retire to their own homes; so they went away, and left the festival, out of fear of somewhat worse which would follow, although they had been so bold by reason of their want of instruction.”
     
                Archelaus who just took over the reign as king (though Caesar had not confirmed it yet) killed 3,000 of the pilgrims during the festival.  The pilgrims were bewailing the death of the Rabbins Judas and Matthias and their companions who his father, the late King Herod, ordered killed almost four months earlier.

  3. Return of the Holy Family from Egypt
    Sometime in 33 BC (Sometime in 3728-3729)

    The stay of the Holy Family in Egypt was not long.  The angel must have told Joseph while in Egypt to return to Nazareth after King Herod died on July 13, 33 BC and after the Passover Festival.  Their return might have been in about August or September 33 BC.  They were foreigners in Egypt.  They have their own house in Nazareth to live in.  Joseph was already known as a carpenter in the city of Nazareth.  Travel at this time of the year was pleasant.  It was still warm unlike in winter when it was cold and rainy.
     
    Matthew 2:19-23 :  “But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child’s life.  And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.  But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither; notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.”
               
    Mary and Joseph were from Nazareth.
    Luke 1:26-27 :  “And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man whose was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.”

                Jesus grew up in Nazareth, that is why He was called a Nazarene.

    Mark 1:24:  “Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth?  Art thou come to destroy us?  I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.” 
    Mark 10:47:  “And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me.” 
    Mark 14:67:  “And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.” 
    Mark 16:6:  “And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.”

                When Pontius Pilate learned that Jesus was a Galilean, from Nazareth, he sent Jesus to Herod for he was under his jurisdiction.  Herod at that time was in Jerusalem also.
                When Jesus was crucified, Pilate also acknowledged that Jesus was from Nazareth as stated in John 19:19-20: “And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross.  And the writing was, Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews.  This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.”
                 

Table 2.  The Jewish religious lunar calendar and civil lunisolar calendar from August 35 BC to May 31 BC.

Religious
Lunar
Calendar,
Month No.

Civil
Lunisolar
Calendar
Date

Civil
Lunisolar
Calendar,
Month No.

Metonic
Cycle

Proleptic
Gregorian
Calendar
Date

Event

1

1Av 3726

12

3

04 Aug 35 BC

 

2

1 Elul 3726

13

3

03 Sep 35 BC

 

3

1 Tishri 3727

1

4

02 Oct 35 BC

 

4

1 Heshvan 3727

2

4

01 Nov 35 BC

 

5

1 Kislev 3727

3

4

30 Nov 35 BC

 

6

1 Tevet 3727

4

4

30 Dec 35 BC

 

7

1 Shebat 3727

5

4

28 Jan 34 BC

 

8

1 Adar 3727

6

4

27 Feb 34 BC

 Temple duty of Zechariah, father of John the Baptist; conception of John the Baptist

9

1 Nisan 3727

7

4

28 Mar 34 BC

 

10

1 Iyyar 3727

8

4

27 Apr 34 BC

 

11

1 Sivan 3727

9

4

26 May 34 BC

 

12

1 Tammuz 3727

10

4

25 Jun 34 BC

 

1

1 Av 3727

11

4

24 Jul 34 BC

 

2

1 Elul 3727

12

4

23 Aug 34 BC

Conception of Jesus; Temple duty of Zechariah       

3

1 Tishri 3728

1

5

21 Sep 34 BC

 

4

1 Heshvan 3728

2

5

21 Oct 34 BC

 

5

1 Kislev 3728

3

5

19 Nov 34 BC

 

6

1 Tevet 3728

4

5

19 Dec 34 BC

Birth of John the Baptist

7

1 Shebat 3728

5

5

17 Jan 33 BC

 

8

1 Adar 3728

6

5

16 Feb 33 BC

 

9

1 Nisan 3728

7

5

16 Mar 33 BC

Lunar Eclipse; fast

10

1 Iyyar 3728

8

5

15 Apr 33 BC

 

11

1 Sivan 3728

9

5

14 May 33 BC

Birth of Jesus; circumcision; three kings

12

1 Tammuz 3728

10

5

13 Jun 33 BC

Purification; presentation at Temple; flight to Egypt; slaughter of innocents; attempted suicide

1

1 Av 3728

11

5

12 Jul 33 BC

Death of King Herod; mourning; Passover Festival

2

1 Elul 3728

12

5

11 Aug 33 BC

 

3

1 Tishri 3729

1

6

09 Sep 33 BC

 

4

1 Heshvan 3729

2

6

09 Oct 33 BC

 

5

1 Kislev 3729

3

6

08 Nov 33 BC

 

6

1 Tevet 3729

4

6

08 Dec 33 BC

 

7

1 Shebat 3729

5

6

06 Jan 32 BC

 

8

1 Adar 3729

6

6

05 Feb 32 BC

 

9

1 Adar II 3729

7

6

06 Mar 32 BC

 

10

1 Nisan 3729

8

6

05 Apr 32 BC

 

11

1 Iyyar 3729

9

6

04 May 32 BC

 

12

1 Sivan 3729

10

6

03 Jun 32 BC

 

1

1 Tammuz 3729

11

6

02 Jul 32 BC

 

2

1 Av 3729

12

6

01 Aug 32 BC

 

3

1 Elul 3729

13

6

30 Aug 32 BC

 

4

1 Tishri 3730

1

7

29 Sep 32 BC

 

5

1 Heshvan 3730

2

7

28 Oct 32 BC

 

6

1 Kislev 3730

3

7

26 Nov 32 BC

 

7

1 Tevet 3730

4

7

25 Dec 32 BC

 

8

1 Shebat 3730

5

7

24 Jan 31 BC

 

9

1 Adar 3730

6

7

23 Feb 31 BC

 

10

1 Nisan 3730

7

7

24 Mar 31 BC

 

11

1 Iyyar 3730

8

7

23 Apr 31 BC

 

12

1 Sivan 3730

9

7

22 May 31 BC

 

 

            The proleptic Gregorian calendar dates were taken from the Internet, http://www.rumblefische.com/calendars/ entitled Yet Another Calendar Converter by Timothy James Forsythe.

 

            The relation of the Temple duty of Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, to the conception of Jesus is found in a separate webpage on http://aristean.org/templeduty.htm.  This study adds credence to the biblical account of Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, was in sixth month of pregnancy when Jesus was conceived.

 

The Christian calendar and the Spanish era
            Dionysius Exiguus is considered to be the inventor of the Christian calendar which counts the year starting from the birth of Jesus Christ.  However, this belief that Dionysius was the first to do so is not correct.  According to Sepp Rotwingl in his website, http://www.calendersign.com/en/to_turn_of_era2.php, “the era Cons or Spanish era, which existed since the second half of the third century, originating on the Asturian-Astabrian border area of the Iberian peninsula, counts 38 years more than the calendar of Dionysius.”  This means that the era reckons Jesus was born in 39 BC.  This is only six years from what was established in this study!  Jose Vives of Barcelona carefully studied the era Cons and discusses this in his "Inscripciones cristianas de la Espana Romana y Visigoda."   

 

Conclusion and notable findings

This webpage illustrates and proves that the revelation of the Holy Spirit regarding the birth of Jesus on May 23 and established to be in the year 33 BC is verified to be true and correct.

 

Among the notable findings discovered in this study are:

  1. Jesus was born on May 23, 33 BC and not December 25, 1 BC.
  2. The Jews were using two calendars during the time of Jesus, namely, a lunisolar calendar for civil usage and a lunar calendar for religious purposes.
  3. The Passover Festival was celebrated during the first month of the religious lunar calendar.
  4. The Passover Festival was wandering through the seasons.
  5. Joseph and Mary were very poor that no kindreds or relatives received them when they arrived in Bethlehem.  They were only able to bring two pigeons to the Temple.
  6. If King Herod could murder all possible rivals to his power, including his brother-in-law, Aristobulus III, and those who caused intrigues in the palace like his wife Mariamne, their two sons, Alexander and Aritobulus, and lastly, his first-born, Antipater, how much more could he had caused the slaughter of innocent children.
  7. King Herod died on the second day of the eleventh month of the lunisolar calendar.
  8. King Herod died a few days before the Passover Festival.
  9. Archelaus, the son of Herod, has just assumed the kingship (to be confirmed by Caesar still) when the Passover Festival was celebrated.  He was able to complete the seven-day mourning before the Festival started.
  10. The Jews used to observe a fast on Nisan 16.  This was the fast of Esther.  Nowadays, this fast is observed on Adar 13 to be with the associated Feast of Lots or Purim.

 

Hope for Christian unity
The birth date of Jesus is one cause of division among Christians.  The Western Church consisting of the Roman Catholics and Protestants celebrate the birth on December 25 whereas the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates it in January.  Who is correct between them?  Are both of them correct in placing the birth of Jesus during winter? 

 

Hopefully, one day, Christians will be united in celebrating the birth of Jesus on its correct date, May 23.  The revelation came from no other than the Holy Spirit.  This study has proven it to be correct and true.  When this united celebration comes true, it will be a religious one—solely for the birth of Jesus, God-incarnate, redeemer of mankind.  There will be no Santa Claus in this celebration.

 

File:  birthmay23.htm          First uploaded:  2006 April 30          Last updated:  2006 April 30


HomeRevelationsProphecies888 – Number of JesusCrucifixionTeachings in Pilipino

Aristean CalendarAristean Decimal TimeAristean CycleWorld PeacePostingsSite Map

 

© Aristeo Canlas Fernando 2006

All rights reserved.